In news- On the eve of the 73rd Republic Day, the President of India honoured the country’s military and police personnel for their show of gallantry and valor.
Gallantry awards for 2022-
- The Indian Army received a total of 317 awards for the gallantry and distinguished service of its personnel.
- In addition to the six Shaurya Chakras, there were 19 Param Vishisht Seva Medal (PVSM), four Uttam Yudh Seva Medal (UYSM), 33 Ati Vishisht Seva Medal (AVSM), and 84 Sena Medal (gallantry), including three “Bar to Sena Medal (gallantry) and four of them posthumous.
- Additionally, 10 Yudh Seva Medal (YSM) were conferred, along with 40 Sena Medal (distinguished), 77 Vishisht Seva Medal (VSM), including three “Bar to VSM”, and 44 mention-in-dispatches, including three posthumous honors.
- The President also awards three police medals for meritorious service, for distinguished service, and for gallantry to law enforcement personnel in the country.
About Gallantry awards-
- Gallantry Awards have been instituted by the Government of India to honour the acts of bravery and sacrifice of the officers/personnel of the Armed Forces, other lawfully constituted Forces and civilians.
- Post-independence, first three gallantry awards namely Param Vir Chakra, Maha Vir Chakra and Vir Chakra were instituted by the Government of India on 26th January, 1950 which were deemed to have effect from the 15th August, 1947.
- The other three gallantry awards i.e. Ashoka Chakra Class-I, Ashoka Chakra Class-II and Ashoka Chakra Class-III were instituted by the Government of India on 4th January, 1952, which were deemed to have effect from the 15th August, 1947.
- These awards were renamed as Ashoka Chakra, Kirti Chakra and Shaurya Chakra respectively in January, 1967.
- These gallantry awards are announced twice in a year – first on the occasion of the Republic Day and then on the occasion of the Independence Day.
- Order of precedence of these awards is the Param Vir Chakra, the Ashoka Chakra, the Mahavir Chakra, the Kirti Chakra, the Vir Chakra and the Shaurya Chakra.
Gallantry are divided among the following six awards(peace time and war time):
- Param Vir Chakra (PVC): India’s highest military decoration is awarded for displaying distinguished acts of valour during wartime. It is granted for “most conspicuous bravery in the presence of the enemy” on land, sea, or in the air.
- Mahavir Chakra (MVC): The second highest military decoration in India is awarded for acts of conspicuous gallantry in the presence of the enemy, whether on land, at sea or in the air. It replaced the British Distinguished Service Order (DSO).
- Vir Chakra (VrC): Third in precedence in wartime gallantry awards, Vir Chakra is awarded for acts of bravery on land, air, or sea.
- Ashoka Chakra: It is India’s highest peacetime military decoration awarded for valour, courageous action or self-sacrifice away from the battlefield. This award can be given to either a military or civilian personnel.
- Kirti Chakra: The medal is awarded for conspicuous gallantry otherwise than in the face of the enemy. It may be awarded to military personnel, civilian citizens, police personnel including central para-military forces and Railway Protection Force.
Shaurya Chakra: The Chakra is awarded for gallantry otherwise than in the face of the enemy. The decoration may be awarded posthumously. It may be awarded to military personnel, civilian citizens, police personnel including central para-military forces and Railway Protection Force.