In news- In Rajya Sabha, the Union Minister of State for Health and Family Welfare has mentioned cases related to Fairbank’s disease and Acromegaly in India.
What is Fairbank’s disease or Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia(MED)?
- It is a group of disorders of cartilage and bone development, primarily affecting the ends of the long bones in the arms and legs (epiphyses).
- It is a rare genetic disorder (dominant form: 1 in 10,000 births).
- There are two types of MED, which are distinguished by their patterns of inheritance – autosomal dominant and autosomal recessive.
- Signs and symptoms may include joint pain in the hips and knees; early-onset arthritis; a waddling walk; and mild short stature as adults.
- Recessive MED may also cause malformations of the hands, feet, and knees; scoliosis; or other abnormalities.
- Most people are diagnosed during childhood, but mild cases may not be diagnosed until adulthood.
What is Acromegaly?
- It is a hormonal disorder that develops when your pituitary gland produces too much growth hormone during adulthood which leads to an increase in bone size.
- In childhood, this leads to increased height and is called gigantism, but in adulthood, a change in height doesn’t occur.
- It is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone, most often from a tumor(non-cancerous) in the pituitary gland.
- Middle-aged adults are most commonly affected.
- In more than 95% of cases the excess production is due to a benign tumor, known as a pituitary adenoma.
- However, this condition is not inherited from a person’s parents.
- Symptoms include enlargement of the face, hands and feet.
- Other symptoms may include joint pain, thicker skin, deepening of the voice, headaches, and problems with vision.
- Complications of the disease may include type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, and high blood pressure.