About the United Nations Mission in South Sudan(UNMISS )-
- The UNMISS was initially established for a period of one year from 9 July 2011, under Security Council Resolution 1996 (2011), with the intent to renew for further periods as needed.
- Since then, UNMISS has been renewed consistently with the Security Council determining that the situation in South Sudan continues to pose a threat to international peace and security in the region.
- Currently, under Resolution 2625 (2022), the Council has extended the UNMISS mandate until 15 March 2023.
- Almost 20,000 peacekeepers serve with the UNMISS to protect civilians and build durable peace in the conflict-affected country.
- The civilian, police and military personnel from 73 countries carry out many duties under the mandate provided by the United Nations Security Council.
- Their work falls under the following four main pillars:
- Protection of Civilians.
- Creating conditions conducive to the delivery of humanitarian assistance.
- Supporting the implementation of the revitalized agreement and the peace process.
- Monitoring and investigating human rights.
- India is one of the largest troop-contributing countries to UN peacekeeping missions. Currently, 2,385 Indian military personnel, the second-highest.
What is Peacekeeping by the United Nations?
- Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peace Operations as an “instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace”.
- It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are “mutually reinforcing” and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.
- Peacekeepers monitor and observe peace processes in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they may have signed.
- Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development.
- Accordingly, UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Berets or Blue Helmets because of their light blue berets or helmets) can include soldiers, police officers, and civilian personnel.
- The United Nations Charter gives the United Nations Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security.
- For this reason, the international community usually looks to the Security Council to authorize peacekeeping operations through Chapter VII authorizations
Further reading: https://journalsofindia.com/un-peacekeeping-forces/