Source: The Hindu
Manifest pedagogy:When narrative around the Climate Change is changing, the enthusiasm towards the climate action is to be observed carefully. COP-2019 is very important in that pursuit. The timeline since Kyoto and since Paris Summit have to be learned thoroughly.
In news: UN climate action summit was held in September, 2019.
Placing it in syllabus: Climate change (explicitly mentioned)
- Timeline of climate action plan
- Roadmap 2019-2020
- Action portfolios
Timeline of climate action plan:
1979: The first World Climate Conference took place.
1988: The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was set up.
1992: At the Earth Summit in Rio, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was opened for signature along with its sister Rio Conventions, the UN Convention on Biological Diversity and the UN Convention to Combat Desertification.
1994: The UNFCCC entered into force.
1995: The first Conference of the Parties (COP 1) took place in Berlin.
1996: The UNFCCC Secretariat was set up to support action under the Convention.
1997: The Kyoto Protocol was formally adopted in December at COP 3.
2005: Kyoto Protocol entered into force. The first Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol (MOP 1) took place in Montreal.
2010: The Green Climate Fund(GCF) was formally established at Cancun COP 16.
2012: The Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol was adopted at COP 18.
2013: At COP 19 the term Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDC) was coined.
2015: In COP21 the Paris Agreement, a global agreement on the reduction of climate change, was adopted.
2017: COP23 held at Bonn, Germany, concluded with the ‘Fiji Momentum for Implementation,’ which outlined the steps that need to be taken in 2018 to make the Paris Agreement operational.
2019: UN climate action summit held.
According to latest analysis we can reduce carbon emissions within 12 years and hold the increase in global average temperature to well below 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels.
Though we have the forward-looking policy framework like Paris Agreement, ambitious action is required to reach the target.
Hence the UN Secretary-General called on all leaders to New York in September, 2019 with concrete, realistic plans to enhance their nationally determined contributions by 2020, in line with reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 45 per cent over the next decade, and to achieve net zero emissions by 2050.
The climate action summit brought together governments, the private sector, civil society, local authorities and other international organizations to develop ambitious solutions in six areas:
- A global transition to renewable energy;
- Sustainable and resilient infrastructures and cities;
- Sustainable agriculture;
- Management of forests and oceans;
- Resilience and adaptation to climate impacts;
- Alignment of public and private finance with a net zero economy.
Accelerated climate solutions can strengthen our economies and create jobs, while bringing cleaner air, preserving natural habitats and biodiversity, and protecting our environment.
Below is the roadmap for 2019-2020.
The U.N. Secretary-General has prioritized the following action portfolios, which have high potential to curb greenhouse gas emissions and increased global action on adaptation and resilience.
Finance: mobilizing public and private sources of finance to drive decarbonization of all priority sectors and advance resilience.
Energy Transition: accelerating the shift away from fossil fuels and towards renewable energy.
Industry Transition: transforming industries such as Oil and Gas, Steel, Cement, Chemicals and Information Technology.
Nature-Based Solutions: Reducing emissions, increasing sink capacity and enhancing resilience within and across forestry, agriculture, oceans and food systems through biodiversity conservation, leveraging supply chains and technology.
Cities and Local Action: Advancing mitigation and resilience at urban and local levels, with a focus on new commitments on low-emission buildings, mass transport and urban infrastructure.
Resilience and Adaptation: advancing global efforts to address and manage the impacts and risks of climate change, particularly in those communities and nations most vulnerable.