In news– The 2022 Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded for experiments with entangled photons, establishing the violation of Bell inequalities, and pioneering quantum information science.
About the discovery-
- John Clauser, Alain Aspect, and Anton Zeilinger have received Physics Nobel for their groundbreaking experiments using entangled quantum states, where two particles behave like a single unit even when they are separated.
- Their experiments have conclusively established that the ‘entanglement’ phenomenon observed in quantum particles was real, not a result of any ‘hidden’ or unknown forces, and that it could be utilised to make transformative technological advances in computing, hack-free communications, and science fiction-like concept of ‘teleportation’.
- John Clauser built an apparatus that emitted two entangled photons at a time, each towards a filter that tested their polarisation. The result was a clear violation of a Bell inequality and agreed with the predictions of quantum mechanics.
- Alain Aspect developed a setup to close an important loophole. He was able to switch the measurement settings after an entangled pair had left its source, so the setting that existed when they were emitted could not affect the result.
- Anton Zeilinger researched entangled quantum states. His research group has demonstrated a phenomenon called quantum teleportation, which makes it possible to move a quantum state from one particle to one at a distance.
- The 2022 Nobel Prize laureates in physics have conducted groundbreaking experiments using entangled quantum states, where two particles behave like a single unit even when they are separated.
- In 2021, the academy honoured Syukuro Manabe, of Japan and the United States, and German Klaus Hasselmann for their research on climate models, while Italian Giorgio Parisi also won for his work on the interplay of disorder and fluctuations in physical systems.
- The Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded 116 times to 222 Nobel Prize laureates between 1901 and 2022.
- John Bardeen is the only laureate who has been awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics twice, in 1956 and 1972.