Polity- Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation
Environmental impact of the Swachh Bharat Mission on Water, Soil, and Food: a study by UNICEF
Earlier the WHO 2018 study had estimated that the Swachh Bharat Mission will save over 3 lakh lives by the time India is Open Defecation Free.
- The study, commissioned by UNICEF and the Bill and Melinda Gates, was aimed at assessing the environmental impact and communication footprint of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) respectively. Following are the key highlights of the findings of the study ;
- Under the “Environmental impact of the Swachh Bharat Mission on Water, Soil, and Food” by UNICEF, groundwater samples were collected and studied from ODF and non-ODF villages of Odisha, Bihar and West Bengal. The study found that, in terms of faecal contamination, non-ODF villages were, on average:
- More than ten times more likely to have their groundwater sources contaminated and also have few times more likely to have their soil contaminated
- Few times more likely to have food contaminated and around 2 times more likely to have household drinking water contaminated.
- The study findings indicated that these substantial reductions may potentially be attributed to the improvement in sanitation and hygiene practices, as well as supportive systems such as regular monitoring and behaviour change messaging, which have all been critical aspects of the Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen).
IEC footprint study by Gates Foundation
The Assessment of the reach and value of Information, Education, Communication (IEC) activities under Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) conducted by Dalberg, supported by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, estimated the scale of IEC activities within the Mission and assessed associated monetary and in-kind costs, and outputs such as reach. The study found that:
- SBM mobilized a spend equivalent worth INR 22,000 to 26,000 crores in monetary and non-monetary IEC activities.
- It was found that on an average person living in rural India was exposed to between 2,500 – 3,300 SBM related messages over the last five years.
About Swachh Bharat Mission
To accelerate the efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage and to put the focus on sanitation, the Prime Minister of India launched the Swachh Bharat Mission on 2nd October 2014. The Mission Coordinator for SBM is Secretary, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (MDWS) with two Sub-Missions, the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) and the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban). Together, they aim to achieve Swachh Bharat by 2019, as a fitting tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th Birth Anniversary.
In Rural India, this would mean improving the levels of cleanliness through Solid and Liquid Waste Management activities and making villages Open Defecation Free (ODF), clean and sanitized.
The vision of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
The aim of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin) is to achieve a clean and Open Defecation Free (ODF) India by 2nd October 2019
Objectives of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin)
- To bring about an improvement in the general quality of life in the rural areas, by promoting cleanliness, hygiene and eliminating open defecation.
- To accelerate sanitation coverage in rural areas to achieve the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2nd October 2019.
- To motivate communities to adopt sustainable sanitation practices and facilities through awareness creation and health education.
- To encourage cost effective and appropriate technologies for ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation.
- To develop, wherever required, community managed sanitation systems focusing on scientific Solid & Liquid Waste Management systems for overall cleanliness in the rural areas.
- To create a significant positive impact on gender and promote social inclusion by improving sanitation especially in margcost-effectiveinalized communities