Source: The Hindu
Manifest pedagogy: India has made great strides towards a clean and safe environment with the Swachh Bharat mission and the second phase will further enhance stakeholder participation and state efforts in this regard.
In news: The Centre recently approved the second phase of the Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM 2.0).
Placing it in syllabus: Swachh Bharat mission (explicitly mentioned)
- Swachh Bharat
- Open defecation free (Odf) status
- Odf +
- Odf ++
- Swachh bharat 2.0
- Swachh bharat rankings
Swachh Bharat Mission (SBM):
- Also called Clean India Mission was launched on the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi on October 2, 2014 in New Delhi.
- The Urban Clean India mission seeks to eradicate open defecation, convert insanitary toilets to flush toilets, eradicate manual scavenging and facilitate solid waste management.
- Covers 4041 statutory towns across India and aimed to make the streets, roads and infrastructure clean by October 2, 2019 (Mahatma Gandhi’s 150th birth anniversary).
- The Rural mission, known as Swachh Bharat Gramin, aims to make Village Panchayats open defecation free by October 2, 2019.
- At the core of this mission lie six components:
- Individual household toilets;
- Community toilets;
- Public toilets;
- Municipal Solid Waste Management;
- Information and Educating Communication (IEC) and Public Awareness;
- Capacity Building;
- The mission contributes to India reaching Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6).
- The action plan for SBM is laid by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (now Ministry of Jalshakti).
- According to the Economic survey 2018-2019, since October 2014, over 9.5 crore toilets have been built all over the country.
- 564,658 villages have been declared Open Defecation Free (ODF).
- The national rural sanitation coverage up from 39% in 2014 to over 98% in 2019.
- As on 14 June 2019, 30 States/UTs are 100 percent covered with Individual household Latrine (IHHL).
- SBM has helped reduce diarrhea and malaria among children below five years, stillbirth and low birth weight (newborn with weight less than 2.5 kgs).
- This effect is particularly pronounced in districts where IHHL coverage was lower in 2015.
- The government launched Open Defecation Free (ODF) Plus vision document in July, 2019.
- It is an extension of the ODF programme under the SBM.
- According to the Ministry of Jalshakti, ODF Plus is defined as an area where along with regular availability and usage of toilets, management of solid and liquid waste, cleanliness of water resources, maintenance of public and household toilets and awareness on personal hygiene are at their highest.
- Swacch Gram Darpan app launched allows people to monitor how the programme is working at district and state levels.
- The ODF Plus programme has four verticals – ODF sustainability, Solid waste management, greywater management and faecal sludge management.
A deadline of 2023-24 has been set to achieve targets for biodegradable waste management. Under it, a community compost pit will be made and necessary arrangements for collection and transportation of biodegradable waste generated in villages will be facilitated. As many as 700 gobar-dhan plants, at least one in each district, will also be established.
A deadline of 2021-22 has been set for completing targets for plastic waste management which include making necessary arrangements for collection and transportation of non-biodegradable waste with one storage facility per village.
By 2023-24, targets under greywater management and faecal sludge management will be achieved. These include open or small bore pipe drains in villages for waste water and this can be taken up through convergence with MNREGA. Large dense villages will be linked with existing sewage treatment plants (STPs).
Recently Hailakandi and Golaghat towns of Assam got certified as ODF+ by the SBM. According to a recent survey 1,301 towns and cities (including Hailakandi and Golaghat) all over India have been certified as ODF plus towns.
- Along with ODF + , ODF ++ protocol was launched.
- A city / ward can be notified or declared as SBM ODF++ city/ SBM ODF++ ward if, at any point of the day,
- not a single person is found defecating and/ or urinating in the open,
- all community and public toilets are functional and well maintained,
- faecal sludge/septage and sewage is safely managed and treated,
- with no discharging and/or dumping of untreated faecal sludge/septage and sewage in drains, water bodies or open areas.
- This is the first time that the Swachh Bharat Mission (Urban) is officially including the elimination of public urination in its agenda.
- Cities that have been certified SBM ODF+ atleast once shall thereafter be eligible to declare themselves as SBM ODF++ and apply for certification of SBM ODF++ status.
- The Mission is focussed on infrastructure and regulatory changes, on the assumption that it would lead to behaviour change.
- In January, 2019, seven cities – all in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh were certified ODF++.
- The seven cities are Indore, Khargone, Sahaganj, Ujjain, Bhilai, Rajnandgaon and Ambikapur.
- It means, these cities have 100% of their faecal matter treated by sewage treatment plants or faecal sludge treatment plants.
- They are also free of open defecation and open urination, with at least 25% of the community and public toilets in excellent condition.
Swachh bharat 2.0:
- The second phase of SBM will be implemented on a mission mode between 2020-21 and 2024-25 with an estimated central and state budget of Rs 52,497 crore.
- It will focus on ODF Plus.
- The ODF Plus programme will converge with MGNREGA, especially for grey water management and will complement the newly launched Jal Jeevan Mission.
- The fund sharing pattern between the Centre and States will be:
- 90:10 for North-Eastern States and Himalayan States and UT of J&K;
- 60:40 for other States;
- 100:0 for other Union Territories, for all the components.
Swachh Bharat rankings:
- Swachh Sarvekshan (SS) League 2020 results have been announced.
- SS League 2020 has been conducted in 3 quarters:
- April- June,
- July – September,
- October- December 2019
- Ranks have been assigned into two categories, namely,
- cities with a population of one lakh and above (with two sub-categories, such as 1-10 lakh and 10 lakhs and above)
- cities with a population of less than 1 lakh
- In the category of 10 lakh plus population, Indore secured first place. Indore has remained in first place for the last three years. Following Indore, Bhopal and Surat are in second and third places respectively.
- In the category of population between one lakh and 10 lakhs, Jamshedpur is in 1st spot.
- New Delhi fell from second position in the first quarter to sixth position in the second quarter and was replaced by Chandrapur in Maharashtra at second place.
- Kolkata ranked at the bottom of the ranking of 49 major cities across both quarters as West Bengal did not participate in the nationwide exercise.