Source: The Hindu
Manifest pedagogy: The achievements under various initiatives such as smart city, swachch bharat etc zero down to a broader aspect of ease of living, healthy life and socio economic development in the country. The rankings not only encourage greater sense of responsibility and participation but also motivate u to try harder towards fulfillment of these goals.
In news: Swachh Survekshan 2020, has commenced from 4th January, 2020 across India.
Placing it in syllabus: Swachh Bharat mission (SBM)
Static dimensions: SBM and rankings
Current dimensions: Survekshan 2019, 2020
Swachh Bharat mission(SBM):
- Swachh Bharat Mission (Clean India mission) was launched on 2nd October 2014 to honor Mahatma Gandhi’s vision of a Clean country.
- The major objectives of Swachh Bharat include eliminating open defecation through the construction of household-owned and community-owned toilets and establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring toilet use.
- It aims to achieve an “open-defecation free” (ODF) India by 2 October 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, by constructing 100 million toilets in rural India at a projected cost of ₹1.96 lakh crore.
- The mission also contributes to India reaching Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG 6).
- The action plan for SBM is laid by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation (now Ministry of Jalshakti).
At the core of this mission lie six components:
- Individual household toilets;
- Community toilets;
- Public toilets;
- Municipal Solid Waste Management;
- Information and Educating Communication (IEC) and Public Awareness;
- Capacity Building
The Urban Clean India mission seeks to eradicate open defecation, convert insanitary toilets to flush toilets, eradicate manual scavenging and facilitate solid waste management.
The Rural mission, known as Swachh Bharat Gramin, aims to make Village Panchayats open defecation free by October 2, 2019. It aims to provide all rural households with individual latrines and build cluster and community toilets on public-private partnership mode.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has in its report stated that at least 180,000 diarrhoeal deaths were averted in rural India since the launch of SBM. According to a National Statistical Office (NSO) survey, 71% of rural households had access to toilets as of 2018.
- The Ministry of Housing and Urban affairs (MoHUA) and the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) of India, annually published National City Rating under the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan scheme based on cleanliness index.
- The rating includes around 500 cities, covering 72 percent of the urban population in India.
- Until 2017, India was divided into five zones for the purpose of this survey and each city was scored on 19 indicators.
- From 2017-18 survey, the parameters of assessment were modified and cities are categorised based on population into metropolis, large, medium, and small cities.
- The latest ranking of 2019 by SBM has been released and Indore is declared the cleanest city in India for a third time.
Swacch Survekshan 2019 (SS2019):
- Swachh Survekshan is a ranking exercise taken up by the Government of India to assess rural and urban areas for their levels of cleanliness and active implementation of SBM initiatives.
- Swachh Survekshan conducted since 2016, is the world’s largest urban sanitation and cleanliness survey.
- The surveys are carried out by Quality Council of India.
- The primary goal of Swachh Survekshans is to encourage large scale citizen participation and create awareness amongst all sections of society about the importance of working together towards making towns and cities better places to reside in.
- The Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India takes up the Swachh Survekshan in urban areas and the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation in rural areas.
- SS 2019 covered 4,237 cities in a record time of 28 days, in a completely paperless, digital format for data collection.
- Indore has been awarded the cleanest city in the country in the SS 2019 awards while Bhopal has been declared as the cleanest capital.
- Ambikapur in Chhattisgarh was awarded the second India’s Cleanest City overall and became a role model for other towns in the state, followed by Mysuru of Karnataka as the third cleanest city.
- Ahmedabad was named as the Cleanest Big City (more than 10 lakh population).
- Ujjain bagged the award for being the Cleanest Medium City (3 lakh to 10 lakh population).
- The New Delhi Municipal Council area was given the ‘Cleanest Small City’ Award.
- Uttarakhand’s Gauchar was bestowed as the ‘Best Ganga Town’ in the cleanliness survey.
- Chhattisgarh emerged as India’s top performer among states, followed by Jharkhand and Maharashtra.
Swacch Survekshan 2020:
- SS League 2020 results have been announced.
- The objective is to sustain the onground performance of cities along with continuous monitoring of service level performance in cleanliness.
- SS League 2020 has been conducted in 3 quarters: April- June, July – September and October- December 2019.
- It has 2000 marks for each quarter evaluated on the basis of monthly updation of SBM-U online MIS by cities along with citizen’s validation on the 12 service level progress indicators.
- Ranks have been assigned into two categories, namely, cities with a population of one lakh and above (with two sub-categories of 1-10 lakh and 10 lakhs and above) and cities with a population of less than 1 lakh.
- The performance of cities in SS League 2020 is crucial to their ranking in Swachh Survekshan 2020 as 25% weightage of the quarterly assessments will be included in it.
- Under SS 2020, cities will be ranked out of the total of 6,000 marks as opposed to 5,000 marks in SS 2019.
- The data will be collected from five different sources –
- citizen feedback,
- direct observation,
- service level progress,
- certification for garbage and open defecation free (ODF), ODF plus and ODF plus plus cities
- the average score of SS league 2020.
The new entrant in the marksheet is the SS league 2020.
- 25 percent weightage that is 1500 marks have been allotted to citizens’ feedback.
- 1500 marks are in the hands of the independent agency visiting the city and making crucial observations on the ground.
- Under service level progress, all the cities will be evaluated on various parameters like
- – Collection and transportation of municipal solid waste
- – Processing and disposal of municipal solid waste
- – Sustainable sanitation
- – IEC (Information, Education and Communication)
- – Capacity building
- – Innovation and best practices
- – By-laws
- Under certification introduced by the MoHUA, 500 marks have been allotted to the cities that have successfully achieved ODF, ODF plus, and ODF plus plus status.
- 1000 marks have been allotted to ‘star rating’ achieved by garbage-free cities as per the protocol released by MoHUA.
- The star rating protocol is based on 12 parameters and follows a SMART framework – Single metric, Measurable, Achievable, Rigorous verification mechanism and Targeted towards outcomes.
- Cities are rated as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 7 star based on their compliance with the protocol conditions specified for each of the rating.
- While cities can self-declare themselves 1, 2, or 4 starred cities, MoHUA will give 3, 4, or 7 star rating only after a verification done by an independent third party.