In news– The Prime Minister has greeted the people on the occasion of Samvatsari.
About Samvatsari parva-
- It is the last day of the Paryushan Parv festival of the Shwetambar sect of the Jain community.
- It falls on Shukla Panchami each year in the Jain calendar month of Bhadrapada, somewhere between the middle of August and September in the Gregorian calendar.
- A yearly, elaborate penitential retreat called “samvatsari pratikramana” is performed on this day.
- After the pratikramana, Jains seek forgiveness from all the creatures of the world, including friends and relatives by uttering the phrase — Micchami Dukkadam or its variants like “Khamau Sa”, “Uttam Kshama” or “Khamat Khamna”.
- While Samvatsari and kshamavani are typically associated with Shwetambar sect and Digambara respectively, there is no major difference between the two days and both are observed as Forgiveness Days.
- As a result, while Samvatsari is observed on Shukla Panchami of Bhadrapada month by the Shwetambars, the Digambaras celebrate it on the first day of Ashvin Krishna month of the lunar-based Jain calendar.
About Paryushan parva-
- It is the most important annual holy event for Jains and is usually celebrated in August or September.
- During this festival, Jains increase their level of spiritual intensity often using fasting and prayer/meditation to help.
- The five main vows are emphasized during this time.
- Normally, Digambaras refer to it as Das Lakshana Dharma while Śvētāmbaras refer to it as Paryushana (“abiding” or “coming together”).
- The duration of Paryushana is for 8 days for Śvētāmbara Jains and 10 days for Jains belonging to the Digambara sect.
- The festival ends with the celebration of Samvatsari or Kshamavani (forgiveness day).
- The Digambaras celebrate Ananta- chaturdashi on the chaturdashi, special worship is done on this day.
- During the 8-day festival, the Kalpa Sutra is recited in the Shwetmbara sect, that includes a recitation of the section on birth of Lord Mahavira on the fifth day.
- In the Digambara sect the Tattvartha-sutra of Umaswati is recited.
Das-Dharma (ten righteous virtues) are mentioned in the Jain text, Tattvartha Sutra. These are:
- Uttam Kshama (forbearance).
- Uttam Mardava (supreme modesty).
- Uttam Aarjava (straightforwardness).
- Uttam Shoch (purity).
- Uttam Satya (truth).
- Uttam Sanyam (supreme restraint).
- Uttam Tap (austerity).
- Uttam Tyaga (renunciation).
- Uttam Aakinchanya (non-attachment).
- Uttam Brahmcharya (supreme celibacy).
In the full form, it is a 10-day vrata that comes every year. It may be undertaken during Shukla Panchami to Chaturdashi of Bhadrapada, Magh or Chaitra months.