Why was it in the news
Recently, the third phase of PMGSY was approved by the central government.
What is this program all about?
- Rural Road Connectivity is not only a key component of Rural Development by promoting access to economic and social services and thereby generating increased agricultural incomes and productive employment opportunities in India, it is also as a result, a key ingredient in ensuring sustainable poverty reduction.
- Hence, Government launched the Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana on 25th December, 2000 to provide all-weather access to unconnected habitations. The Ministry of Rural Development along with state governments is responsible for the implementation of PMGSY.
PMGSY – Phase I
- PMGSY – Phase I was launched in December, 2000 as a 100 % centrally sponsored scheme with an objective to provide single all-weather road connectivity to eligible unconnected habitation of designated population size(500+ in plain areas and 250+ in North-East, hill, tribal and desert areas, 00 – 249 population in LWE districts asper Census, 2001) for overall socio-economic development of the areas.
- Also, upgrading (to prescribed standards) of the existing roads in those Districts where all the eligible Habitations Of the designated population size have been provided all-weather road connectivity was to be taken up.
- However, up gradation is not central to the Programme. In Up gradation works, priority was to be given to Through Routes of the Rural Core Network, which carry more traffic.
- Under the scheme, 1,35,436 habitations were targeted for providing road connectivity and 3.68 lakh km. for upgrading existing rural roads (including 40 % renewal of rural roads to be funded by the States) in order to ensure full farm to market connectivity.
PMGSY – Phase II
- The Phase II of PMGSY was approved during May, 2013. While the ongoing PMGSY – I continued, under PMGSY phase II, the roads already built for village connectivity was to be upgraded to enhance rural infrastructure.
- For the 12th Five Year Plan period a target of 50,000 Km length under PMGSY-II. 75 percent of the cost of the upgrade was by the Centre and 25 per cent by the state. For hill states, desert areas, Schedule V areas and Naxal-affected districts, 90 percent of cost was borne by the Centre
Road Connectivity Project for Left Wing Extremism Area (RCPLWEA)
- Government launched Road Connectivity Project for Left Wing Extremism affected Areas in the year 2016 as a separate vertical under PMGSY to provide all-weather road connectivity with necessary culverts and cross-drainage structures in 44 districts (35 are worst LWE affected districts and 09 are adjoining districts), which are critical from security and communication point of view.
- Under the project, construction/upgrade of roads and bridges/Cross Drainage works was targeted to be taken up in the above districts.
- The fund sharing pattern of LWE road project is in the ratio of 60:40 between the Centre and States for all States except for eight North Eastern and three Himalayan States (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand) for which it is 90:10.
PMGSY – Phase III
- Phase III was approved by the Cabinet during July 2019. It involves consolidation of Through Routes and Major Rural Links connecting habitations to Gramin Agricultural Markets (GrAMs), Higher Secondary Schools and Hospitals.
- Under the PMGSY-III Scheme, it is proposed to consolidate 1, 25,000 Km road length in the States.
- The duration of the scheme is 2019-20 to 2024-25.The funds would be shared in the ratio of 60:40 between the Centre and State for all States except for 8 Northeastern and 3 Himalayan States (Jammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh & Uttarakhand) for which it is 90:10.Major source of funds for PMGSY is Central Road Fund
Central road fund
- The Central Road Fund (CRF) is a non-lapsable fund created under Central Road Fund Act 2000. It is procured out of the out of cess/tax imposed by the Union Government on the consumption of Petrol and Diesel.
- CRF should be used to develop and maintain National Highways, State roads (that have economic importance with inter-state connectivity), rural roads, railway under/over bridges etc., and national waterways (waterways from 2017 onwards only).