Why in news?
Recent reports have shown that pollinators are under threat and need adequate protection.
- Pollination is an essential process for the reproduction of the flowering plants, involving the transfer of pollen grain from the anther (or male part) or from a similar stigma (or female part).
- The fertilized egg cells are converted into seeds which are then distributed around various fruit and vegetables.
- It’s essential not only for mankind but also for crops.
Importance of pollinators:
- Pollinators are vital for creating and maintaining the habitats and ecosystems that many animals rely on for food and shelter.
- Worldwide, over half the diet of fats and oils comes from crops pollinated by animals.
- They facilitate the reproduction in 90% of the world’s flowering plants.
Reasons for disappearance of pollinators:
- The disappearance of moths, bees, butterflies and other pollinators is unmistakably related to human activities: vast natural habitats have been cleared up for monocultures while the use of pesticides and fertilizers sucks out the little helpers in existence.
- Researchers at the University of Calcutta have shown that native Indian bees suffer from memory and olfactory (smellless), lower levels of reaction, and the oxidative stress that kills cells, when subjected to several pesticides.
- Researchers in Kashmir have pinned the declining frequency of bee visitors which in turn reduces apple trees yield.
- Lowering mustard crop yields in northern India is attributed to the loss of pollinators.