About Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve
- The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve was the first biosphere reserve in India established in the year 1986.
- It is located in the Western Ghats and includes 2 of the 10 biogeographical provinces of India.
- The total area of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is 5,520 sq. km. It is located in the Western Ghats between 76°- 77°15‘E and 11°15‘ – 12°15‘N.
- The annual rainfall of the reserve ranges from 500 mm to 7000 mm with temperature ranging from 0°C during winter to 41°C during summer.
- The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve encompasses parts of Tamilnadu, Kerala and Karnataka.
- The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve falls under the biogeographic region of the Malabar rain forest.
- The Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary, Wayanad Wildlife Sanctuary Bandipur National Park, Nagarhole National Park, Mukurthi National Park and Silent Valley are the protected areas present within this reserve.
|Vegetational Types of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve|
|S.No||Forest type||Nature of Vegetation||Area of occurrence|
|1||Moist evergreen||Dense, moist and multi storeyed forest with gigantic trees||In the narrow valleys of Silent Valley|
|2||Semi evergreen||Moist, deciduous||Nilambur and Palghat division|
|3||Thorn||Dense||North east part of the Nilgiri district|
|4||Savannah woodland||Trees scattered amid woodland||Mudumalai and Bandipur|
|5||Sholas & grasslands||High elevated evergreen with grasslands||South and western catchment area, Mukurthi national park|
- About 3,300 species of flowering plants can be seen out of species 132 are endemic to the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
- The genus Baeolepis is exclusively endemic to the Nilgiris.
- Some of the plants entirely restricted to the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve include species of Adenoon, Calacanthus, Baeolepis, Frerea, Jarodina, Wagatea, Poeciloneuron, etc.
- Of the 175 species of orchids found in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, 8 are endemic to the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve. These include endemic and endangered species of Vanda, Liparis, Bulbophyllum, Spiranthes and Thrixspermum.
- The solas of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve are a treasure house of rare plant species.
- The fauna of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve includes over 100 species of mammals, 350 species of birds, 80 species of reptiles and amphibians, 300 species of butterflies and innumerable invertebrates.
- 39 species of fish, 31 amphibians and 60 species of reptiles endemic to the Western Ghats also occur in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve.
- Fresh water fish such as Danio neilgherrensis,Hypselobarbus Dubius and Puntius bovanicus are restricted to the Nilgiri BiosphereReserve.
- The Nilgiri tahr, Nilgiri langur, slender loris, blackbuck, tiger, gaur, Indian elephant and martin are some of the animals found here.