In News: The UNFCCC, in its Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) Synthesis Report, has called for more ambitious climate action plans by the countries in order to achieve the Paris Agreement target of containing global temperature rise to 2°C (ideally 1.5°C) by the end of the century.
NDC Synthesis Report
Mandate and Background
- This report has been prepared in response to the requests from COP 21 and CMA 2 for the secretariat to prepare a synthesis report on NDCs submitted by Parties.
- In view of the postponement from 2020 to 2021 of the United Nations Climate Change Conference to be held in Glasgow and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the preparation of NDCs, the secretariat informed Parties that it will publish two editions of the NDC synthesis report: an initial version by 28 February 2021, and the final version before COP 26.
Scope and Approach
- The NDC Synthesis Report covers submissions up to 31st December 2020 and includes new or updated NDCs by 75 Parties, which represent approximately 30% of global greenhouse gas emissions.
- The COP and CMA guidance on the information necessary for clarity, transparency and understanding of NDCs was used as a framework for synthesizing the relevant information contained in the communicated NDCs, which was supplemented by the synthesis of other information included in the NDCs but not covered by the guidance.
- The UK and The EU are only among 18 of the world’s biggest emitters that have significantly increased their greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets.
- The world’s biggest Sixteen emitters of the have not increased their emission reduction targets substantially or at all.
- Majority of countries increased their individual levels of ambition to reduce emissions, But their combined impact will help achieve only a 1% reduction by 2030 compared to 2010 levels. However, Global emissions need to reduce by 45% in order to meet the 1.5°C goal, according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change(UNFCCC)
- The UNFCCC secretariat (UN Climate Change) is the United Nations entity.
- The Convention membership (197 Parties)
- Parent treaty of the 2015 Paris Agreement.
- The UNFCCC is also the parent treaty of the 1997 Kyoto Protocol.
- Under the UNFCCC is to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system, in a time frame which allows ecosystems to adapt naturally and enables sustainable development.
- Paris Agreement (also known as the Conference of Parties 21 or COP 21) adopted in 2015 to address climate change.
- It replaced the Kyoto Protocol which was an earlier agreement to deal with climate change.
Aim-To reduce global GHG emissions well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels, while pursuing means to limit the increase to 1.5°C by 2100.