In news– The Minister of State for Jal Shakti has mentioned about the National Floodplains Zoning Policy in Rajya Sabha recently.
About National Flood Plains Zoning Policy-
- Flood Plain Zoning has been recognized as an effective non-structural measure for flood management.
- Flood-plain zoning measures aim at demarcating zones or areas likely to be affected by floods of different magnitude or frequencies and probability levels, and specify the types of permissible developments in these zones, so that whenever floods actually occur, the damage can be minimized.
- The action for demarcation of flood plain areas and regulating the activities therein, is to be undertaken by respective state governments.
- A model draft bill for flood plain zoning legislation was also circulated by the Union Government to all the States.
- This bill envisages zoning of flood plain of a river according to flood frequencies and defines the type of use of flood plain.
- The states of Manipur, Rajasthan, Uttarakhand and erstwhile State of Jammu & Kashmir had enacted the legislation.
- However, delineation and demarcation of flood plains is yet to be undertaken
What is a Floodplain?
- A floodplain or flood plain or bottomlands is an area of land adjacent to a river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.
- A floodplain consists of two parts. The first is the main channel of the river itself, called the floodway. Floodways can sometimes be seasonal, meaning the channel is dry for part of the year.
- They are formed when a meander erodes sideways as it travels downstream.
- When a river breaks its banks, it leaves behind layers of alluvium (silt), these are gradually build up to create the floor of the plains.
- Beyond the floodway is the flood fringe. The flood fringe extends from the outer banks of the floodway to the bluff lines of a river valley. Bluff lines, also called valley walls, mark the area where the valley floor begins to rise into bluffs.