In News: According to the recently released National Cancer Registry Programme Report 2020, cancer cases in India are likely to increase to 15.6 lakhs by 2025, a 12% increase from the current estimated cases.
Key Finding Of Report
- Number of Cases: The number of cases are likely to touch 15.6 lakhs by 2025 from the current 13.9 lakhs in 2020.
- Major Cause: Tobacco-related cancers are estimated to contribute 27.1% of the total cancer burden.
- Regional Distribution: Cancers related to use of any form of tobacco were highest in the northeastern region of the country and in higher proportions in men.
- Gender Prevalence: Among women, breast cancers are estimated to contribute 14.8% and cervical cancer (tumour of the cervix, the lowermost part of the uterus) are estimated to contribute 5.4%.For both men and women, cancers of the gastrointestinal tract are estimated to contribute 19.7% of the total cancer burden.Cancers of the lung, mouth, stomach and oesophagus (the muscular tube that runs from the throat to the stomach) are the most common cancers among men.
- Detection and Spread: Cancers of the lung were diagnosed at a stage of spread to distant sites, while cancers of head and neck, stomach, breast and cervix were in higher proportions with a locoregional (restricted to a localized region of the body) spread.
- Lymphoid and haematopoietic malignancies (immune system and blood cancers), cervix cancers and ovarian cancers are the other common cancers in India.
- The PBCR takes into account the number of cancer cases in a given geographical unit, for instance, Delhi.
- It can be a district or even a state.
- The PBCR in Delhi registered the maximum number of cases (60,097), followed by Mumbai (53,714), Chennai (31,271), Bengaluru (29,049) and Thiruvananthapuram (27,833).
- Cancers of the breast and cervix uteri were the most common cancers among females.
- Mizoram’s Aizawl district topped in terms of cancer incidence per 100,000 population in males.
- Tobacco consumption is a huge public health issue in India and its impact is especially devastating among the poor.
- Effective tobacco control should be a top priority, both as a health issue and as a method to reduce poverty.
- Multiple determinants of tobacco consumption included socio-economic status, marriage, population growth, marketing strategies, and price.
- Report considers the tobacco burden including economic and social costs and adverse health impacts .
- Tobacco consumption in India is continuing to increase despite tobacco control policy.
- Needs are more visible and aggressive anti-tobacco campaigns including increased public awareness of tobacco harms.
- Active engagement of worksites and health professionals in promoting tobacco cessation.
- The National Cancer Registry Programme (NCRP) was commenced by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) with a network of cancer registries across the country in December 1981.
- To generate reliable data on the magnitude and patterns of cancer
- Undertake epidemiological studies based on results of registry data
- Help in designing, planning, monitoring and evaluation of cancer control activities under the National Cancer Control Programme (NCCP)
- Develop training programmes in cancer registration and epidemiology.
Data from the NCRP registries is regularly published in succeeding volumes of Cancer Incidence in Five Continents published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer – the cancer research arm of the World Health Organization (WHO).
- Uniformity in policies, more specifically taxation, on all tobacco products, will aid in effective tobacco control.
- Preventing product switching and realizing the goals of poverty alleviation and good health via tobacco control is the need of the hour