What Are Multi-Domain Operations (MDO)?
- According to the U.S. Army’s Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC): Multi-Domain Operations (MDO) describes how the U.S. Army, as part of the joint force [Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marines] can counter and defeat a near-peer adversary capable of contesting the U.S. in all domains [air, land, maritime, space, and cyberspace] in both competition and armed conflict.
- The concept describes how U.S. ground forces, as part of the joint and multinational team, deter adversaries and defeat highly capable nearpeer enemies in the 2025-2050 timeframe.
- MDO provides commanders numerous options for executing simultaneous and sequential operations using surprise and the rapid and continuous integration of capabilities across all domains to present multiple dilemmas to an adversary in order to gain physical and psychological advantages and influence and control over the operational environment.
Why Did the Army Adopt MDO?
- operational environment to achieve their objectives without resorting to armed conflict by fracturing the U.S.’s alliances, partnerships, and resolve. They attempt to create stand-off through the integration of diplomatic and economic actions, unconventional and information warfare (social media, false narratives, cyber-attacks), and the actual or threatened employment of conventional forces.
- By creating instability within countries and alliances, China and Russia create political separation that results in strategic ambiguity reducing the speed of friendly recognition, decision, and reaction. Through these competitive actions, China and Russia believe they can achieve objectives below the threshold of armed conflict.
- Army leadership believes that if the Army—in conjunction with the other Services—prevails in these “competitions’ ‘ in all “domains,” that U.S. national security objectives should be achieved.
How MDO Is Intended to Work
- The Army’s central idea is to prevail by competing successfully in all domains short of conflict, deterring a potential enemy. If deterrence fails, Army forces—along with the Joint Force—are to do the following:
- Penetrate enemy anti-access and area denial systems (layered and integrated long-range precision-strike systems, littoral anti-ship capabilities, air defenses, and long-range artillery and rocket systems) to enable strategic and operational maneuver of U.S. forces.
- Dis-integrate—disrupt, degrade, or destroy enemy antiaccess and area denial systems to enable operational and tactical maneuver of U.S. forces.
- Exploit the resulting freedom of maneuver to achieve operational and strategic objectives by defeating enemy forces in all domains.
- Re-compete—consolidate gains across domains and force a return to competition on favorable terms to the United States and allies.
Joint Air Power Competence Centre
- Based on a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU), the JAPCC is sponsored by 16 NATO nations who provide a variety of experienced Subject Matter Experts (SME) that come from all three services. Through its multi-discipline organization.
- The JAPCC chooses the most suitable SMEs for the task and combines their knowledge and experience to fully contribute to transforming NATO’s A&S Power. More importantly
- The JAPCC is not constrained by the need for consensus or by political expediency in developing ideas.
- It can offer independent military advice across the spectrum of A&S Power to NATO HQs and national policy-making bodies.
- Be NATO’s catalyst for the improvement and transformation of Joint Air and Space Power; delivering effective solutions through independent thought and analysis.
- The JAPCC, as a team of multinational experts, is to provide key decision-makers effective solutions on Air and Space Power challenges, in order to safeguard NATO and the Nations’ interests.