Source: National Health Portal of India
Immunization Programme in India was introduced in 1978 as the ‘Expanded Programme of Immunization (EPI) by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. In 1985, the programme was modified as the ‘Universal Immunization Programme’ (UIP) to be implemented in a phased manner to cover all districts in the country by 1989-90 with the one of the largest health programme in the world. Despite being operational for many years, UIP has been able to fully immunize only 65% of children in the first year of their life.
About Mission Indradhanush
To strengthen and re-energize the programme and achieve full immunization coverage for all children and pregnant women at a rapid pace, the Government of India launched “Mission Indradhanush” in December 2014.
Goal of the Mission
- The ultimate goal of Mission Indradhanush is to ensure full immunization with all available vaccines for children up to two years of age and pregnant women.
Diseases covered under India’s Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP)
- The UIP provides free vaccines against 12 life-threatening diseases, to 26 million children annually.
- The Universal Immunization Programme provides life-saving vaccines to all children across the country free of cost to protect them against Tuberculosis, Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Polio, Hepatitis B, Pneumonia and Meningitis due to Haemophilus Influenzae type b (Hib), Measles, Rubella, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) and Rotavirus diarrhoea. (Rubella, JE and Rotavirus vaccine in select states and districts).
Phases under the Indradhanush Mission
- Phase I was started as a weeklong special intensified immunization drive from 7th April 2015 in 201 high focus districts for four consecutive months.
- Phase II of Mission Indradhanush covered 352 districts in the country of which 279 are medium focus districts and the remaining 73 are high focus districts of Phase-I.
- Phase III of Mission Indradhanush was launched from 7 April 2016 covering 216 districts.
Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI)(Mission Indradhanush 2.0)
To further intensify the immunization programme, Prime Minister launched the Intensified Mission Indradhanush (IMI) on October 8, 2017.
Through this programme, the Government of India aims to reach each and every child up to two years of age and all those pregnant women who have been left uncovered under the routine immunization programme/UIP
- This special drive will focus on improving immunisation coverage in select districts and cities to ensure full immunisation to more than 90% by December 2018.
- The achievement of full immunization under Mission Indradhanush to at least 90% coverage was to be achieved by 2020 earlier. With the launch of IMI, the achievement of the target has now been advanced.
- Under IMI, it was planned to conduct four consecutive immunization rounds for 7 days in 173 districts (121 districts and 17 cities in 16 states and 52 districts in 8 northeastern states) every month between October 2017 and January 2018.
- Coverage: Intensified Mission Indradhanush covered low performing areas in the selected districts (high priority districts) and urban areas. Special attention was given to unserved/low coverage pockets in sub-centre and urban slums with migratory population
- Vaccination: Through UIP, Government of India is providing vaccination free of cost against vaccine-preventable diseases include diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, severe form of childhood tuberculosis, hepatitis B, meningitis and pneumonia (Hemophilus influenza type B infections), Japanese encephalitis (JE) in JE endemic districts with introduction of newer vaccines such as rotavirus vaccine, IPV, adult JE vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and measles-rubella (MR) vaccine in UIP/national immunization programme.