In news- Brihanmumbai Municipal Corporation (BMC) recently issued an advisory warning about leptospirosis, following heavy rainfall in Mumbai.
About the disease-
- Leptospirosis is a bacterial disease that affects humans and animals.
- It is caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira.
- Cattle, pigs, horses, dogs, rodents and wild animals carry the bacterium and these infected animals may have no symptoms of the disease.
- Humans can become infected through contact with urine (or other body fluids, except saliva) from infected animals, contact with water, soil, or food contaminated with the urine of infected animals.
- The bacteria can enter the body through skin or mucous membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth), especially if the skin is broken from a cut or scratch.
- Outbreaks of leptospirosis are usually caused by exposure to contaminated water, such as floodwaters.
- Person to person transmission is rare.
- The common symptoms of leptospirosis include fever, rash, body ache, and vomiting and can be treated with antibiotics.
- Without treatment, Leptospirosis can lead to kidney damage, meningitis, liver failure, respiratory distress, and even death.
- In India, the outbreaks of Leptospirosis are increasingly being reported from states such as Kerala, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu Maharashtra and Karnataka.
- Government of India launched the Programme for Prevention and Control of Leptospirosis (PPCL) during 12th Five year plan in the endemic states and National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) has been designated as the nodal agency for implementation of Programme.
The strategies of the Programme include-
- Development of trained manpower.
- Strengthening the surveillance of Leptospirosis in humans.
- Strengthen diagnostic laboratory in programme states.
- Advocacy for strengthening of patient management facilities in programme states.
- Strengthening Inter-Sectoral Coordination at state and district level for outbreak detection, prevention and control of leptospirosis.