In news– Recently, around hundred countries have signed the Kunming Declaration (China) on biodiversity conservation.
About the Kunming Declaration-
- It was adopted at the first part of the ongoing virtual 15th meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity.
- It calls upon the parties to “mainstream” biodiversity protection in decision-making and recognise the importance of conservation in protecting human health.
- By adopting this, the nations have committed themselves to support the development, adoption and implementation of an effective post-2020 implementation plan, capacity building action plan for the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety.
- The theme of the declaration is “Ecological Civilization: Building a Shared Future for All Life on Earth”.
- Signatory nations will ensure that the post-pandemic recovery policies, programmes and plans contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, promoting sustainable and inclusive development.
- It is a document of political will, not a binding international agreement.
- The signed declaration will be submitted to the General Assembly of the United Nations, the 2022 High-Level Political Forum on Sustainable Development, and the United Nations Environment Assembly at the second part of the ongoing session in Kunming, China from 25 April-8 May 2022.
- In a previous agreement signed in Aichi, Japan, in 2010, governments agreed on 20 targets to try to slow biodiversity loss and protect habitats by 2020, but none of those targets was met.
- One of the measures suggested by the declaration is increased funding for conservation in poorer countries, as well as vowing to create more sustainable and environmentally friendly supply chains.
United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity-
- It is a multilateral treaty.
- The convention has three main goals: the conservation of biological diversity; the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.
- Signed by 150 government leaders at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, the Convention on Biological Diversity is dedicated to promoting sustainable development.
- The 15th COP of the UN Biodiversity Conference began on October 11, 2021.
- It was originally scheduled to take place from 15-28 October 2020 in Kunming, China but was postponed several times due to the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic.
Cartagena Protocol on biosafety-
- It is an international agreement which aims to ensure the safe handling, transport and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biological diversity, taking also into account risks to human health.
- It was adopted on 29 January 2000 and entered into force on 11 September 2003.