Korean war 1950-53
- The Korean War 1950-53 is the result of victory of Allies forces during 2nd world war 1939-45. The USA and Soviet Union decided to divide the Korean peninsula b/w two parts- North Korea under Soviet Union and South Korea under the USA. The boundary line b/w N. Korea & S. Korea is known as the 38th parallel line.
- N. Korea was restored by the monarch and invaded in s. Korea with the help of Soviet Union and China. To prevent invasion from N. Korea, S. Korea also retaliated against N. Korea with the help of the USA. It is also seen as the war b/w the USA and Soviet Union, known as cold war.
- The USA faction was backing a liberal government that eventually took control of the southern part of the peninsula.
- The inter-Korean war lasted for three years between 1950 and 1953, which was a proxy war between USSR and the US.
- Although a truce was reached in 1953 through the “Armistice Agreement”, The agreement divided the Korean peninsula into two along the 38th Parallel (latitude) and also provided for neutral international peace patrol.
- Victory of Allied forces in the 2nd World War
- After the 2nd World War the end of supremacy of Japan over Korean peninsula.
- Cold war between USA and Soviet Union.
- Capitalism Versus Communism.
- Immediate Cause: Invasion of North Korean in Demilitarized Zone to conquer South Korea.
- War lasted three years (1950-53)
- More than 5 million soldiers/people were killed.
- Both countries lost financial growth in terms of agriculture, manufacturing.
- Nuclear weapons were massively developed and tested.
- India under Nehru was involved in negotiating peace in the Korean peninsula by engaging all the major stakeholders – US, USSR and China.
- In late 1952, the Indian resolution on Korea was adopted at the UN with unanimous non-Soviet support. But India, recognized without the Soviets resolution will fail and India makes efforts to get them on board, which happened in 1953.
- Despite the rough international political climate, India succeeded in building consensus – which precipitated in the “Armistice Agreement”.
- Follow-up actions to the Armistice Agreement was the establishment of a Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission (NNRC).
- UN Command led by an Englishman and a Custodian Force from India (headed by Lt.Gen Thimayya) was also deployed in the inter-Korean border.
- NNRC’s tenure ended in early 1954, and the Indian forces were praised internationally for executing the tough stabilising operations successfully.
- Indian Abode – At the end of its work, the NNRC was left with over 80 prisoners of war who didn’t want to go to either of the Koreas.
- As an interim arrangement, Nehru decided to grant them abode in India until the UN directive on their request is pronounced.