Israel-Palestine is an issue which is continuously in the news because of the intractable nature of the issue and the new partisanship that the USA is showing under Donald Trump. This might trigger a question in world history with respect to the history of wars and the origin of the problem.
USA recognises Golan Heights as part of Israel.
Placing it in the syllabus
History of the world- Redrawing of national boundaries
- Israel state creation by UN
- First Arab- Israel war
- Second-Arab Israel war
- Third Arab-Israel war
- Golan Heights and its strategic significance
- Shifting of the embassy by the USA.
Israel state creation by UN
- After world war one the Separate national home for the Jewish people was initiated by British but it was opposed by the Arabs which was even led to Arab attacks on Jewish people.
- Following an increase in Arab attacks, the British appointed a royal commission in 1936 to investigate the Palestine situation. The Peel Commission recommended the partition of the country between Arabs and Jews. The Arabs rejected the idea while the Jews accepted the principle of partition.
- Towards the end of the 2nd world war, the British persisted in their immigration restrictions and Jewish survivors of the Holocaust were violently turned away from the shores of Palestine. The Jewish Agency and the Haganah kept on carrying Jews into Palestine. Underground cells of Jews, most remarkably the Irgun and Lehi, occupied with open fighting against the British and their establishments.
- The British reasoned that they would not oversee Palestine and gave the issue over to the United Nations. On November 29, 1947, after much discussion and dialogue, the UN suggested the partition of Palestine into two states one Jewish and one Arab(Resolution 181). The Jews acknowledged the UN goals while the Arabs rejected it.
- The British order over Palestine formally ended at midnight, May 14, 1948. Prior in the day, David Ben-Gurion declared the creation of the State of Israel and turned into its first leader. A long-lasting supporter of Zionism in Britain Chaim Weizmann turned into Israel’s first president. Both United States and the Soviet Union recognized the creation of Israel.
First Arab- Israel war(1948)
- On the eve of the British powers’ May 15, 1948, withdrawal, Israel announced Independence. The following day, Arab powers from Egypt, Transjordan (Jordan), Iraq, Syria, and Lebanon involved the territories in southern and eastern Palestine not allocated to the Jews by the UN partition of Palestine and after that caught east Jerusalem, including the little Jewish quarter of the Old City. The expressed reason for the intrusion was to reestablish lawfulness in light of British withdrawal, referring to episodes, for example, that at Dayr Yāsīn, and a developing displaced person emergency in neighbouring Arab nations.
- Just after the United Nations voted to partition the British mandate of Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state clashes broke out between Jews and Arabs in Palestine. As British troops arranged to pull back from Palestine, strife kept on raising, with both Jewish and Arab powers submitting belligerences.
- The Israelis, then, won control of the fundamental street to Jerusalem through the Yehuda Mountains (“Hills of Judaea”) and effectively shocked rehashed Arab assaults.
- In between February and July 1949, because of independent peace negotiation understandings among Israel and each of the Arab states, a temporary frontier was fixed between Israel and its neighbours. In Israel, the war is recognized as its War of Independence. In the Arab world, it came to be known as the Nakbah (“Catastrophe”) due to the huge number of outcasts and uprooted people coming about because of the war.
- In mid-1967 Syria increased its assault of Israeli towns from positions in the Golan Heights. At the point when the Israeli Air Force shot down six Syrian MiG warrior streams in backlash, Nasser prepared his powers close to the Sinai fringe, rejecting the UN drive there, and he again tried to bar Elat. In May 1967 Egypt signed a mutual defense agreement with Jordan.
- Israel addressed this evident Arab race to war by arranging an abrupt air strike, obliterating Egypt’s aviation based armed forces on the ground. The Israeli triumph on the ground was likewise overpowering. Israeli units drove back Syrian powers from the Golan Heights, assumed responsibility for the Gaza Strip and the Sinai Peninsula from Egypt, and drove Jordanian powers from the West Bank. Essentially, the Israelis were left in sole control of Jerusalem.
Yom Kippur War(1973)
- The sporadic battling that pursued the Six-Day War again formed into full-scale war in 1973. On October 6, the Jewish holy day of Yom Kippur (consequently “Yom Kippur War”), Israel was assaulted by Egypt over the Suez Canal and by Syria on the Golan Heights. The Arab armed forces indicated more prominent forcefulness and battling capacity than in the past wars, and the Israeli powers endured substantial setbacks. The Israeli armed force, in any case, turned around early misfortunes and pushed its way into Syrian region and encompassed the Egyptian Third Army by crossing the Suez Canal and establishing forces on its west bank.
- Israel and Egypt signed a cease-fire agreement in November and peace agreements on January 18, 1974. The accords provided for Israeli withdrawal into the Sinai west of the Mitla and Gidi passes, while Egypt was to reduce the size of its forces on the east bank of the canal. A UN peacekeeping force was established between the two armies. This agreement was supplemented by another, signed on September 4, 1975. On May 31, 1974, Israel and Syria signed a cease-fire agreement that also covered separation of their forces by a UN buffer zone and exchange of prisoners of war.
- Israel and Egypt consented to a truce arrangement in November and harmony concessions to January 18, 1974. The accords accommodated Israeli withdrawal into the Sinai west of the Mitla and Gidi passes, while Egypt was to diminish the span of its powers on the east bank of the trench. A UN peacekeeping power was built up between the two armed forces. This understanding was enhanced by another, marked on September 4, 1975. On May 31, 1974, Israel and Syria consented to a cease-fire agreement that additionally covered separation of their forces by a UN buffer zone and trade of detainees of war.
- On March 26, 1979, Israel and Egypt signed a peace treaty formally finishing the condition of war that had existed between the two nations for a long time. Under the terms of the Camp David Accords, as the treaty was called, Israel restored the whole Sinai Peninsula to Egypt, and, consequently, Egypt perceived Israel’s entitlement to exist. The two nations along these lines set up typical political relations.
Golan Heights and its strategic significance
The Golan Heights, a rocky plateau in south-western Syria, has a political and key strategic importance which gives a false representation of its size. Israel captured the Golan Heights from Syria in the end phases of the 1967 Six-Day War.
- Southern Syria and the capital Damascus, around 60 km (40 miles) north, are clearly visible from the highest point of the Heights while Syrian mounted guns routinely shelled the entire of northern Israel from 1948 to 1967 when Syria controlled the Heights.
- The stature gives Israel an astounding vantage point for checking Syrian developments. The geography gives a characteristic cradle against any military push from Syria.
- The region is additionally a key source of water for a bone-dry area. Water from the Golan’s catchment sustains into the Jordan River. The region gives 33% of Israel’s water supply.
- The land is prolific, and the volcanic soil is utilized to develop vineyards and plantations and raise dairy cattle. The Golan is likewise home to Israel’s only ski resort.