In news– International Tiger Day is celebrated on July 29 every year.
About International Tiger Day-
- International Tiger Day was founded in 2010 at the Saint Petersburg Tiger Summit in Russia to raise awareness about the loss of the tiger population globally.
- On this day, the 13 tiger range countries came together to create Tx2, the global goal to double the number of wild tigers by the year 2022.
- 2022 marks the twelfth International Tiger Day.
- The main aim behind this day is to promote a global system for protecting the natural habitats of tigers and to raise public awareness and support for tiger conservation issues.
- The theme in 2021 was ‘Their survival is in our hands’. Meanwhile, the theme for 2022 is not yet announced.
- Russia will host the Global Tiger Summit in September 2022.
- The International Tiger Day is observed by several international organizations including – the World Wide Fund for Nature, the International Fund for Animal Welfare, and the Smithsonian Institution.
Tiger related initiatives by the government-
- Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in April 1973 by the Government of India.
- The year 2023 will mark 50 years of of the project
- The circumstances that led to Project Tiger and the landmark Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, are rooted in the so-called ‘Shikar Era’ of the 19th century.
- The tiger is the national animal of India(declared in 1972). India is home to over half of the world’s wild tigers, an estimated 2,226.
- The Pilibhit Tiger Reserve (PTR) and the Uttar Pradesh Forest department last year bagged the first-ever international award, TX2, for doubling the number of tigers in four years against a target of 10 years.
- India, where most wild tigers live, has recorded a rise in numbers and is celebrating the approval of 14 sites under the Conservation Assured Tiger Standards (CA|TS) scheme.
- In India, Tadoba Tiger Reserve, Maharashtra hosted National Global Tiger Day Celebrations 2022.
Status of the deadline for doubling tiger population by 2022-
- India has successfully doubled the tiger population ahead of the 2022 target.
- Nepal has done it according to new figures it released July 29 2022.
- In fact, it is the four south Asia countries — India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan — that are now home to 76 per cent of the global tiger population.
- Russia too has not been performing badly. It is only southeast Asia that has touched rock bottom.
So far, these four species of tiger, including Bali Tiger, Caspian Tiger, Javan Tiger, and Tiger Hybrids are extinct. Following are subspecies of Tigers:
- Sumatran Tiger:
- The Sumatran tiger is a population of Panthera tigris sondaica on the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
- This population was listed as Critically Endangered on the IUCN Red List.
- Sumatran tigers are the smallest tiger subspecies.
- Amur/Siberian Tiger: Amur tigers (also known as Siberian, Manchurian, Ussurian, or Northeast China tigers) are the largest of the tiger subspecies.
- Bengal(Indian)Tiger: The most numerous of the tiger species, the Bengal tiger is found in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan.
- South China Tiger: Found in central and eastern China, the South China tiger is listed as Critically Endangered on IUCN list.
- Malayan Tiger: The Malayan tiger was only identified as being a separate subspecies from the Indochinese tiger in 2004. It is very similar to the Indochinese tiger, but is smaller in size.
- Indo-Chinese Tiger:
- Also known as Corbett’s tiger, after British hunter and naturalist Jim Corbett, this subspecies is found in Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam and formerly in China.
- They are listed as endangered on the IUCN Red List.
- Indo-Chinese tigers are a bit smaller and darker than Bengal tigers, with shorter, narrower stripes.
- Bali Tiger: One of the three extinct subspecies of tiger, the Bali tiger went extinct in the 1940’s.
- Javan Tiger: This now-extinct species inhabited the Indonesian island of Java into the 1980’s.
- The Caspian Tiger: The Caspian tiger (also called the Hyrcanian tiger or Turan tiger) became extinct in the 1970’s.