With the recent flare up of tensions between India and Pakistan. The history of wars and the peace treaties between the countries gains prominence. UPSC has already picked the topic of Tashkent agreement in 2013. The other sections of the article are more important this year.
Recent Pulwama Attack and the Air strikes on Pakistan.
Placing it in the syllabus
Post-Independent History of India
The First India- Pakistan War 1948
Indo Pakistan war of 1965
Bangladesh Liberation war of 1971
Kargil war of 1999.
Brief History of India-Pakistan Wars
Since both India and Pakistan were granted independence by Britain in 1947, the two neighbouring nations have engaged in four wars. The first conflict took place soon after independence and is sometimes known as the First Kashmir War. This war was fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir from October 21, 1947, to December 31, 1948. The second war, in 1965, also concerned the territory of Kashmir. The third war, in 1971, occurred when India intervened to end the Bangladesh War of Independence, defeating Pakistan. The fourth confrontation, the Kargil conflict of 1999, was again in Kashmir.
The First Indo-Pakistani War-1948
Prior to the withdrawal of the British from India, the state of Jammu & Kashmir came under pressure from both India and Pakistan to join them. The Maharaja of Kashmir, Hari Singh wanted to remain independent and tried to delay the issue. However, at the time of British withdrawal, the state was invaded by a concentrated force of Pro-Pakistan Tribes from North West Frontier Province (NWFP) and regular Pakistani soldiers. This forced him to accede Kashmir to India through an Instrument of Accession, and India promptly rushed into Kashmir and was able to liberate Kashmir.
India referred the dispute to the United Nations under article 35 of the UN Charter, which allows the member states to bring to the Security Council attention situations `likely to endanger the maintenance of international peace’.
India sought resolution of the issue at the UN Security Council on 1 January 1948. Following the set-up of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP), the UN Security Council passed Resolution 47 on 21 April 1948. The measure imposed an immediate cease-fire and called on the Government of Pakistan ‘to secure the withdrawal from the state of Jammu and Kashmir of tribesmen and Pakistani nationals not normally resident therein who have entered the state for the purpose of fighting.’ It also asked Government of India to reduce its forces to minimum strength, after which the circumstances for holding a plebiscite should be put into effect ‘on the question of Accession of the state to India or Pakistan.’
Following the cease-fire of hostilities, it also established the United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) to monitor the cease-fire line.
The UN Security Council passed Resolution 47 in April 1948. The fronts solidified gradually along what came to be known as the Line of Control. A formal cease-fire was declared on the night of 1 January 1949. India gained control of about two-thirds of the state (Kashmir valley, Jammu and Ladakh) whereas Pakistan gained roughly a third of Kashmir (Azad Kashmir, and Gilgit–Baltistan). The Pakistan controlled areas are collectively referred to as Pakistan occupied Kashmir.
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, also known as the Second Kashmir War, was the culmination of a series of skirmishes that occurred between April 1965 and September 1965, between India and Pakistan. The war was the second fought between India and Pakistan over the region of Kashmir. It is generally accepted that the war began following the failure of Pakistan’s “Operation Gibraltar” which was designed to infiltrate and invade Jammu and Kashmir.
Fighting broke out between India and Pakistan in an area known as the Rann of Kutch, a barren region in the Indian state of Gujarat.
The United Nations mandated an end to the war after the US and the Soviet Union initiated peace talks. Both India and Pakistan, however, claimed to have won the war and felt that the US and Britain had not supported their positions. This led both countries to create stronger ties to the Soviet Union and China.
In January 1966, India and Pakistan signed the Tashkent Declaration, a peace treaty, in which they agreed to return conquered territories, remove troops, and return to the borders established in 1949.
About Operation Gibraltar and Grand Slam
Operation Gibraltar: Operation Gibraltar was the codename given to the strategy of Pakistan to infiltrate Jammu and Kashmir, and start a rebellion against Indian rule. If successful, Pakistan hoped to gain control over Kashmir, but the operation resulted in a major failure.
Pakistan specifically chose this name to draw a parallel to the Arab invasion of Spain that was launched from the port of Gibraltar.
Operation Grand Slam was a key operation of the 1965 Indo-Pakistani War. It refers to a plan drawn up by the Pakistan Army, in May 1965, to attack the vital Akhnoor Bridge in Jammu and Kashmir. The bridge was not only the lifeline of an entire infantry division in Jammu and Kashmir, but could also be used to threaten Jammu, an important logistical point for Indian forces. The operation ended in a failure for the Pakistan Army as the stated military objectives were not achieved and they subsequently were forced to retreat following a counterattack by the Indian Army.
Tashkent agreement(1966) provisions
Tashkent Agreement, accord signed by India’sprime minister Lal Bahadur Shastri and Pakistan’s president Ayub Khan, ending the 17-day war between Pakistan and India of August–September 1965. A cease-fire had been secured by the United Nations Security Council in Sept. 1965. The agreement was mediated by Soviet premier Aleksey Kosygin, who had invited the parties to Tashkent. With this agreement, India-Pakistan declared their firm resolve to restore normal and peaceful relations between their countries. They consider the attainment of following objectives for the welfare of the people of India and Pakistan.
- The Prime Minister of India and the President of Pakistan agree that both sides will exert all efforts to create good neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan in accordance with the United Nations Charter. They reaffirm their obligation under the Charter not to have recourse to force and to settle their disputes through peaceful means. They considered that the interests of peace in their region and particularly in the Indo-Pakistan Sub-Continent and, indeed, the interests of the peoples of India and Pakistan were not served by the continuance of tension between the two countries. It was against this background that Jammu and Kashmir was discussed, and each of the sides set forth its respective position.
- Both sides have agreed that all armed personnel of the two countries shall be withdrawn not later than 25 February, 1966 to the positions they held prior to 5 August, 1965, and both sides shall observe the cease-fire terms on the cease-fire line.
- It was agreed that relations between India and Pakistan shall be based on the principle of non-interference in the internal affairs of each other.
- It was agreed that both sides will discourage any propaganda directed against the other country, and will encourage propaganda which promotes the development of friendly relations between the two countries.
- It was also agreed that the High Commissioner of India to Pakistan and the High Commissioner of Pakistan to India will return to their posts and that the normal functioning of diplomatic missions of both countries will be restored. Both Governments shall observe the Vienna Convention of 1961 on Diplomatic Intercourse.
- Both sides have agreed to consider measures towards the restoration of economic and trade relations, communications, as well as cultural exchanges between India and Pakistan, and to take measures to implement the existing agreements between India and Pakistan.
- Both sides agreed that they give instructions to their respective authorities to carry out the repatriation of the prisoners of war.
- It was also agreed that both sides will continue the discussion of questions relating to the problems of refugees and evictions/illegal immigrations. They also agreed that both sides will create conditions which will prevent the exodus of people. They further agreed to discuss the return of the property and assets taken over by either side in connection with the conflict.
- It was agreed that the sides will continue meetings both at the highest and at other levels on matters of direct concern to both countries. Both sides have recognized the need to set up joint Indian-Pakistani bodies which will report to their Governments in order to decide what further steps should be taken.
It is common to have an agreement after a conflict to bring an armistice and if possible to resolve the issues connected with the war. It was called a peace agreement ‘to restore normal and peaceful relations between their countries and to promote understanding and friendly relations between their peoples’. The main item was the withdrawal to the August 5 positions and with that India had to return the Haji pir and other areas.
The leaders of the Soviet Union, the Soviet Government and the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. have played constructive, friendly and noble part in bringing about this meeting which was resulted in mutually satisfactory results.both the sides invited the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the U.S.S.R. to witness this Declaration.
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was the first war between the countries that did not involve fighting over the Kashmir region. At this time, the Dominion of Pakistan was divided into West Pakistan and East Pakistan (initially East Bengal). These two regions were separated by the larger nation of India.
East Pakistan felt exploited by West Pakistan, which held the majority of political power. In March of 1971, an East Pakistan political party won the election, and West Pakistan chose not to recognize the results. This decision led to political unrest in East Pakistan, and West Pakistan responded with military force. The Bangladesh Liberation War began with East Pakistan declaring independence as Bangladesh.
Due to the violence in Bangladesh, many of its residents sought refuge in India. The Prime Minister decided to intervene in the civil war, supporting an independent Bengali state. Some say this decision was prompted by the past relations between India and Pakistan, others say it was to reduce the number of refugees. India began supporting rebel troops in Bangladesh, in response, Pakistan attacked an Indian military base in December of 1971. This attack was the official start of the war.
After two weeks of fighting and losing West Pakistan territory, the Pakistani troops in Bangladesh surrendered. This surrender effectively established the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. The war resulted in the highest number of casualties of any Indo-Pakistani conflict.
The Simla Agreement signed by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto of Pakistan on 2nd July 1972 was much more than a peace treaty seeking to reverse the consequences of the 1971 war (i.e. to bring about withdrawals of troops and an exchange of PoWs). It was a comprehensive blue print for good neighbourly relations between India and Pakistan. Under the Simla Agreement both countries undertook to abjure conflict and confrontation which had marred relations in the past, and to work towards the establishment of durable peace, friendship and cooperation.
The Simla Agreement contains a set of guiding principles, mutually agreed to by India and Pakistan, which both sides would adhere to while managing relations with each other. These emphasize:
- Respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty.
- Non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.
- Respect for each others unity, political independence.
- Sovereign equality; and abjuring hostile propaganda.
The following principles of the Agreement are, however, particularly noteworthy:
- A mutual commitment to the peaceful resolution of all issues through direct bilateral approaches.
- To build the foundations of a cooperative relationship with special focus on people to people contacts.
- To uphold the inviolability of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir, which is a most important CBM between India and Pakistan, and a key to durable peace.
The Provisions of the agreement
- The Government of India and the Government of Pakistan are resolved that the two countries put an end to the conflict and confrontation that have hitherto marred their relations and work for the promotion of a friendly and harmonious relationship and the establishment of durable peace in the sub-continent, so that both countries may henceforth devote their resources and energies to the pressing talk of advancing the welfare of their peoples.
In order to achieve this objective, the Government of India and the Government of Pakistan have agreed as follows:-
- That the principles and purposes of the Charter of the United Nations shall govern the relations between the two countries;
- That the two countries are resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations or by any other peaceful means mutually agreed upon between them. Pending the final settlement of any of the problems between the two countries, neither side shall unilaterally alter the situation and both shall prevent the organization, assistance or encouragement of any acts detrimental to the maintenance of peaceful and harmonious relations;
- That the pre-requisite for reconciliation, good neighbourliness and durable peace between them is a commitment by both the countries to peaceful co-existence, respect for each other’s territorial integrity and sovereignty and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, on the basis of equality and mutual benefit;
- That the basic issues and causes of conflict which have bedevilled the relations between the two countries for the last 25 years shall be resolved by peaceful means;
- That they shall always respect each other’s national unity, territorial integrity, political independence and sovereign equality;
- That in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations they will refrain from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of each other.
- Both Governments will take all steps within their power to prevent hostile propaganda directed against each other. Both countries will encourage the dissemination of such information as would promote the development of friendly relations between them.
- In order progressively to restore and normalize relations between the two countries step by step, it was agreed that;
- Steps shall be taken to resume communications, postal, telegraphic, sea, land including border posts, and air links including overflights.
- Appropriate steps shall be taken to promote travel facilities for the nationals of the other country.
- Trade and co-operation in economic and other agreed fields will be resumed as far as possible.
- Exchange in the fields of science and culture will be promoted.
In this connection delegations from the two countires will meet from time to time to work out the necessary details.
- In order to initiate the process of the establishment of durable peace, both the Governments agree that:
- Indian and Pakistani forces shall be withdrawn to their side of the international border.
- In Jammu and Kashmir, the line of control resulting from the cease-fire of December 17, 1971 shall be respected by both sides without prejudice to the recognized position of either side. Neither side shall seek to alter it unilaterally, irrespective of mutual differences and legal interpretations. Both sides further undertake to refrain from the threat or the use of force in violation of this Line.
- The withdrawals shall commence upon entry into force of this Agreement and shall be completed within a period of 30 days thereof.
- This Agreement will be subject to ratification by both countries in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures, and will come into force with effect from the date on which the Instruments of Ratification are exchanged.
- Both Governments agree that their respective Heads will meet again at a mutually convenient time in the future and that, in the meanwhile, the representatives of the two sides will meet to discuss further the modalities and arrangements for the establishment of durable peace and normalization of relations, including the questions of repatriation of prisoners of war and civilian internees, a final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir and the resumption of diplomatic relations.
Indo-Pakistani War of 1999
The cause of the war was the infiltration of Pakistani soldiers disguised as Kashmiri militants into positions on the Indian side of the LOC, which serves as the de facto border between the two states.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1999, also known as the Kargil War, took place between May and July. Pakistan prompted this conflict when it sent troops across the Kashmir border to join rebels in the Indian district of Kargil. India retaliated with a significant military response. The Indian army, together with the Air Force, recaptured the majority of the Kargil district. Facing international opposition, Pakistan was forced to withdraw its invasion over the rest of the district. Many countries criticized Pakistan for starting the conflict, and its already weak economy suffered further due to the threat of decreased international trade.
In India, the conflict is also referred to as Operation Vijay which was the name of the Indian operation to clear the Kargil sector.