In news: The Prime Minister of India paid homage to Guru Gobind Singh on his Prakash Purab
About Prakash Purab
- Sikhs observe the 354th birth anniversary of Guru Gobind Singh Ji, their tenth guru this year.
- The day is commonly referred to as Guru Gobind Singh Jayanti or Prakash Purab.
- He was born on the Saptami Tithi (seventh day), Shukla Paksha (waxing phase of the Lunar fortnight) in the month of Poh (Paush) as per the traditional Nanakshahi calendar.
- And hence, the date varies every year as per the Gregorian calendar.
- This year, Sikhs worldwide shall celebrate Guru Gobind Singh Ji Jayanti on 20th January
A brief history of Guru Gobing Singh(original name- Gobind Rai)
- He was born in 1666 in Patna, Bihar
- He was the 10th and last of the personal Sikh Gurūs
- Gobind Singhji was the son of the ninth Gurū, Tegh Bahādur, who suffered martyrdom at the hands of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb.
- He was a linguist familiar with Persian, Arabic, and Sanskrit as well as his native Punjabi.
- He passed away in 1708.
- He is known chiefly for his creation of the Khālsā (Punjabi: “the Pure”) in 1699, the military brotherhood of the Sikhs.
- With the Khālsā as the guiding spirit of the reconstituted Sikh army, Gobind Singh moved against the Sikhs’ enemies on two fronts: one army against the Mughals and the other against the hill tribes.
- He had five men called pañc-piāra (the five beloved), they formed the nucleus of the Khālsā.
- His troops were totally devoted and totally committed to Sikh ideals, willing to risk everything in the cause of Sikh religious and political freedom
- He also announced a code of discipline for Khalsa warriors. Tobacco, eating ‘halal’ meat (a way of slaughtering in which the animal’s throat is slit open and it is left to bleed before being slaughtered), fornication and adultery were forbidden
- The Khalsas also agreed to never interact with those who followed rivals or their successors
- The co-initiation of men and women from different castes into the ranks of Khalsa also institutionalized the principle of equality in Sikhism regardless of one’s caste or gender
- Guru Gobind Singh’s significance to the Sikh tradition has been very important, as he institutionalized the Khalsa, resisted the ongoing persecution by the Mughal Empire, and continued “the defence of Sikhism and Hinduism against the Muslim assault of Aurangzeb”
Codification of Sikh law:
- He further codified Sikh law, wrote martial poetry and music, and was the reputed author of the Sikh work called the Dasam Granth (“Tenth Volume”).
- The hymns of Dasam Granth are a sacred part of Sikh prayers and Khalsa rituals
- He is also credited as the one who finalized and enshrined the Guru Granth Sahib as Sikhism’s primary scripture and eternal Guru
- Gobind Singh proclaimed that he was the last of the personal Gurūs. From that point forward, the Sikh Gurū was to be the holy book, the Ādi Granth.
Introduction of five ‘K’s
Guru Gobind Singh Ji introduced the five ‘K’s that the Sikhs abide by:
- Kesh: Uncut hair
- Kangha: A wooden comb
- Kara: An iron or steel bracelet worn on the wrist
- Kirpan: A dagger
- Kachera: Short breeches