- Location: Dholavira is an archaeological site at Khadir Bet( Khadir island) in Bhachau Taluka of Kutch District, in the state of Gujarat in western India, which has taken its name from a modern-day village 1 kilometre south of it
- It belonged to mature Harappan phase
First discovered by archaeologist JP Joshi in 1956, excavations at Dholavira started only 35 years later in 1990 under RS Bisht of the Archaeological Survey of India.
Structures in Dholavira
- Dholavira had monumental structures, a sophisticated drainage system and gateways.
- It was a well-planned town and its layout has given archaeologists great insight into the life and times of the Harappan people.
- Also known locally as Kotada timba, the site contains ruins of an ancient Indus Valley Civilization/Harappan city
- It is also considered as having been the grandest of cities of its time.
- Estimated to be older than the port-city of Lothal, the city of Dholavira has a rectangular shape and organization, and is spread over 22 ha (54 acres)
- At the height of its habitation the city was surrounded by enormous walls measuring 15-18 mts in thickness
- Unlike Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, the city was constructed to a pre-existing geometrical plan consisting of three divisions – the citadel, the middle town, and the lower town
- This city had a citadel, consisting of enclosures identified as a castle and a bailey (by excavators), having massive mud-brick walls flanked by dressed stones.
- To the north of the citadel was the quadrangular middle town having an area identified as the ceremonial ground or stadia.
- Next to the citadel there is a broad empty space to the north, probably used for multiple purposes like as a venue for public gathering on festive or ceremonial occasions, a stadium or a market place for exchanging merchandise during trading seasons.
- Dholavira show large scale use of dressed stone in construction.
- A regular house at Dholavira consisted of four rooms, a spacious courtyard, a bathroom and also a kitchen.
- One can also find sign board made up of ten large-sized letters of the Harappan script
- This city also had a water management system.
- The water conservation system here consists of a combination of channels and reservoirs, which are among the earliest such networks made of stone, in the world.
- They also built dams on the two rivers Mansar and Manhar which flowed around this city during this time.