In news- National Institute of Biomedical Genomics (NIBMG), Kalyani has created a database of genomic variations in oral cancer; the first of its kind in the world.
- dbGENVOC is a browsable online database of GENomic Variants of Oral Cancer.
- NIBMG has made this database publicly-accessible.
- First release of dbGENVOC contains-
(i) ~24 million somatic and germline variants derived from whole exome sequences of 100 Indian oral cancer patients and whole genome sequences of 5 oral cancer patients from India,
(ii) somatic variation data from 220 patient samples drawn from the USA and analyzed by TCGA-HNSCC project and
(iii) manually curated variation data of 118 patients from recently published peer-reviewed publications.
- dbGENVOC is not just a catalogue of genomic variants, it has a built-in powerful search engine.
- It also allows a reasonable extent of statistical and bioinformatic analysis to be carried out online, including identifying variants in associated altered pathways in oral cancer.
- The repository, which will be updated annually with variation data from new oral cancer patients from different regions of India and southeast Asia, has the potential to support advances in oral cancer research.
National Institute of Biomedical Genomics (NIBMG)-
- It is a national level research institute for genomic medicine in India.
- It is located at Kalyani West Bengal, 50 km from Kolkata.
- It has been established as an autonomous institution under the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India.
- This is the first institution in India explicitly devoted to research, training, translation and service and capacity-building in biomedical genomics.
About Oral cancer-
- India is the second country having the highest number of oral cancer cases.
- It is the most prevalent form of cancer among men in India.
- Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) dominates all the oral cancer cases with potentially malignant disorders, which is also recognized as a detectable pre-clinical phase of oral cancer.
- It is fuelled by tobacco-chewing that causes changes in the genetic material of cells in the oral cavity.
- Oral cancers preventions, screened for and/or detected early and treated at an early stage.
- When diagnosed early, the 5-year survival rate is above 80%, whereas it is less than 20-30% in the advanced stage of the disease.
- Awareness initiatives and programs include comprehensive tobacco control legislation (COTPA, 2003) and ratification of WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) in 2004 by the Government of India.
- The Union Health Ministry has prepared a universal and objective operational Framework for Cancer Screening and management that aims to promote, coordinate, and conduct research to better understand, detect, diagnose, and treat cancer.
- The National Cancer Control Programme (NCCP) has established regional cancer centres (RCCs) and the National Cancer Registry Programme (NCRP) that provides nationwide cancer statistics of India.
- The National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke (NPCDCS) focuses on screening, diagnosis, identification and addressing modifiable risk factors, referral of precancerous conditions, and community level follow up.
- National Oral Cancer Registry (NOCR), an initiative of the India Dental Association collects and compiles data that can be used to develop strategies and policies for cancer prevention, treatment, and control.
- A national cancer institute, modelled after the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) has been proposed by a Indo US government collaboration to expand cancer research infrastructure in India.