In new: Recently the The Minister of State (Health and Family Welfare)stated in the Rajya Sabha that the Crude Birth Rate (CBR) has declined from 23.8 to 20.2 from 2005 to 2017
What is the Crude Birth Rate (CBR)?
It is calculated as the number of live births per 1000 population in a given year. CBR represents only a crude estimate of fertility not all the population included in the denominator is exposed to the risk of pregnancy.
What is the current CBR in India?
In 2020, the crude birth rate for India was 17.44 births per thousand population. Crude birth rate of India fell gradually from 38.82 births per thousand population in 1971 to 17.44 births per thousand per thousand population in 2020.
What is the Crude Death Rate?
Crude death rate indicates the number of deaths occurring during the year, per 1,000 population estimated at midyear. Subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate provides the rate of natural increase, which is equal to the rate of population change in the absence of migration.
What is the current CDR in India?
In 2020, the crude death rate for India was 7.3 deaths per thousand population. Over the last 50 years, crude death rate of India was declining at a moderating rate to shrink from 16.73 deaths per thousand population in 1971 to 7.19 deaths per thousand population in 2020.
What is Rate of Natural increase?
It refers to the difference between the number of live births and the number of deaths occurring in a year, divided by the mid-year population of that year, multiplied by a factor (usually 1,000). It is equal to the difference between the crude birth rate and the crude death rate.
In 2020, the rate of natural increase for India was 10.14 persons per thousand population. Rate of natural increase of India fell gradually from 22.09 persons per thousand population in 1971 to 10.14 persons per thousand population in 2020.
Various initiatives to reduce population growth in India
- Mission Parivar Vikas-
- The Government has launched Mission Parivar Vikas in 2016 for substantially increasing access to contraceptives and family planning services in 146 high fertility districts with Total Fertility Rate (TFR) of 3 and above in seven high focus states.
- These districts are from the states of Uttar Pradesh (57), Bihar (37), Rajasthan (14), Madhya Pradesh (25), Chhattisgarh (2), Jharkhand (9) and Assam (2) that itself constitutes 44% of the country’s population.
- New Contraceptive Choices- New contraceptives viz. Injectable contraceptive (Antara program) and Centchroman (Chhaya) have been added to the existing basket of choices in 2015-16.
- A new method of IUCD insertion immediately after delivery i.e. post-partum IUCD (PPIUCD) has been introduced in 2010. Postpartum intrauterine contraceptive devices (PPIUCD) incentive scheme has been operational since 2014.
- Dedicated RMNCH+A counselors have been appointed in facilities since 2013.
- Clinical Outreach Teams (COT) Scheme – The scheme has been launched in 146 Mission Parivar Vikas districts w.e.f December 2017 for providing family planning services through mobile teams from accredited organizations in far-flung, underserved and geographically difficult areas.
- Scheme for Home delivery of contraceptives by ASHAs at doorstep of beneficiaries launched in August 2011.
- Scheme for ASHAs to Ensure spacing in births launched on 16th May 2012-The scheme is being implemented in 18 states of the country (8 EAG, 8 North East, Gujarat and Haryana). Additionally the spacing component has been approved in West Bengal, Karnataka, AndhraPradesh, Telangana, Punjab, Maharashtra, Daman Diu and Dadra and Nagar Haveli.
- Scheme for provision of Pregnancy Testing Kits in the drug kits of ASHAs for use in communities. The Scheme was introduced in 2013.
- Compensation scheme for sterilization acceptors – Under the scheme MoHFW provides compensation for loss of wages to the beneficiary and also to the service provider (& team) for conducting sterilizations. The package was enhanced in November 2014 for 11 high focus high TFR states (8 EAG, Assam, Gujarat, Haryana), and further increased in November 2016 under Mission Parivar Vikas.
- Observation of World Population Day & fortnight from July 11 – July 24 to boost Family Planning efforts all over the country.
- Observation of Vasectomy Fortnight from November 21 – December 4 in an effort to enhance male participation and revitalize the NSV programme, whereby male sterilization services would be provided to clients at health facilities.
- Improved Demand generation activities through a holistic media campaign including mass media, mid media and interpersonal communication.
- Redesigned Contraceptive Packaging – The packaging for Condoms, OCPs and ECPs has been improved and redesigned since 2015 in order to increase the demand for these commodities.
- Ensuring quality of care in Family Planning services by establishing Quality Assurance Committees in all states and districts.
- National Family Planning Indemnity Scheme (NFPIS) under which clients are insured in the eventualities of death, complication and failure following sterilization.The scheme was introduced in 2005 and implemented through an insurance company. It was revised in 2013 and is now being operated by the state governments directly with NHM funding.
- Family Planning Logistic Management and Information System (FP-LMIS): A dedicated software launched in 2017, to ensure smooth forecasting, procurement and distribution of family planning commodities across all the levels of health facilities.