The Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN) scheme has been launched in ten States this year and will be rolled out across the country by March 2022, the Department of Land Resources told the Standing Committee on Rural Development.
- The Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN)
- Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme
- Land Reforms
The Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN)
What is it?
- ULPIN is a 14-digit unique identification number to every plot of land in India
- It can be described as “the Aadhaar for land”, a number that would uniquely identify every surveyed parcel of land
- The land records database will then be integrated with revenue court records and bank records, as well as Aadhaar numbers on a voluntary basis
- The identification will be based on the longitude and latitude coordinates of the land parcel, and is dependent on detailed surveys and geo-referenced cadastral maps, according to a presentation the Department made to States in September 2020.
- This is the next step in the Digital India Land Records Modernisation Programme (DILRMP), which began in 2008 and has been extended several times as its scope grew
- It would help prevent land fraud, especially in the hinterlands of rural India, where land records are outdated and often disputed.
- These components will enhance the service deliveries to the citizen of the country and will also function as inputs to the schemes of the other sectors like Agriculture, Finance Disaster Management etc
- The single source of truth can authenticate the ownership and which in turn can end the dubious ownership of land.
- Through this, the Government lands can be easily identified and protection of the land from shabby land transactions will be seamless.
- Standardization at data and application level will bring effective integration of various stakeholders and interoperability across Governments.
- Data analytics will be easier and this is in compliance to international standards like Standard Electronic Commerce Code Management Association
- Non-Uniform land regulations: Though DI-LRMP provides a common framework for reporting the progress of land record management by states/UTs, the heterogeneous nature of regulations/guidelines for land record management in India makes the progress non-uniform.
- Lack of skilled manpower: One of the major roadblocks in ensuring continuous updation of land records is the lack of skilled manpower in land record departments in states.
- Poor inter-departmental synergy: Another dimension relates to the poor synergy across land record departments
- Unavailability of Online Mutation: The swiftness of the process of updating ownership as the result of the registration of a transaction is commonly known as mutation. The information obtained from all the state/UT sources in this regard revealed that no state/UT has the provision for online mutation on the same day as the registration.
Digital india Land Records Modernisation Programme(DILRMP):
- The Digital India Land Record Modernization Programme (DILRMP), previously known as the National Land Record Modernization Programme (NLRMP) was launched in 2008.
- The purpose of the programme is to digitize and modernize land records and develop a centralised land record management system.
- The programme is the amalgamation of two projects namely Computerisation of Land Records(CLR) and Strengthening of Revenue Administration and Updating of Land Records(SRA & ULR).
Components of the programme:
- computerisation of all existing land records including mutations (or transfers);
- digitization of maps, and integration of textual and spatial data;
- survey/ resurvey and updating of all survey and settlement records including creation of original cadastral records (record of the area, ownership and value of land) wherever necessary;
- computerisation of registration and its integration with the land records maintenance system and
- development of core Geospatial Information System (GIS) and capacity building.
- Land reforms mean equitable redistribution of land with the aim of increasing productivity and decreasing poverty.
- It refers to the redistribution of land from the few who have to the many who are landless or own far too little.
- Before Independence, there were three major systems of land tenure: Zamindari System, Mahalwari System and Ryotwari System.
- The leased-in area constituted nearly 35 percent of the total operated area in 1950-51. Most of the leases were unwritten and tenants did not have legal security of tenure.
- The rents varied from 50 per cent to 70 per cent of gross produce. In addition, tenants were often asked to provide free labour to landlords.
- After Independence therefore, it became necessary to undertake some land reforms measures for removing the feudal character of the agrarian economy and paving the way for rapid agricultural growth with social justice.
Land reforms since independence
India has seen four ‘experiments’ since independence to redistribute the landholdings. They are:
- Reforms from ‘above’, i.e., through legislation.
- Reforms from above from the government coupled with peasant mobilisation; like in Kerala and West Bengal where land was seized and redistributed; and also to improve the conditions of peasants.
- Naxalite movement and also the ‘land grab’ movement.
- Reforms from ‘below’ through voluntary donations by landlords and peaceful processions by farmers like the Bhoodan movement and the Gram Dan.
Components of Land Reforms
The five components of land reform are:
- Abolition of the Intermediaries
- Tenancy Reforms
- Ceiling on landholdings
- Consolidation of holdings
- Compilation and updating of land records.
Abolition of Intermediaries
- Following the recommendation of Kumarappa Committee, all the states in India enacted legislation for the abolition of intermediary tenures (Zamindari Abolition Acts) in the 1950s, although the nature and effects of such legislation varied from state to state.
- Upon the legal abolition of intermediaries between 1950 and 1960, nearly 20 million cultivators in the country were brought into direct contact with the Government.
- The Agrarian Reforms Committee recommended against any system of cultivation by tenants and maintained that leasing of land should be prohibited except in the case of widows, minors and disabled persons.
- This viewpoint received further strength subsequently in various Five Year Plans.
- Legal measures provoked the landlords to secure mass eviction of tenants, sub-tenants and sharecroppers through various legal and extra-legal devices.
- The highly defective land records, the prevalence of oral leases, absence of rent receipts, non-recognition in law of share- croppers as tenants and various punitive provisions of the tenancy laws were utilized by the landlords to secure eviction of all types of tenants.
- To counteract such a tendency, therefore, it became necessary on the part of the State Governments to enact or amend the laws in the subsequent years and provide for adequate safeguards against illegal eviction and ensure security of tenure for the tenants-at-will.
Ceilings on Land Holding:
- The term ‘ceiling on land holdings’ refers to the legally stipulated maximum size beyond which no individual farmer or farm household can hold any land.
- Like all other land reforms measures, the objective of such a ceiling is to promote economic growth with social justice.
- In 1942, the Kumarappan Committee recommended the maximum size of land a land lord can retain, it was three times of the size of the economic holding i.e. Sufficient livelihood for a family. The All India Kisan Sabha recommended that the land that can be retained by a family shall be 25 acres.
- From 1960 to 1961, several States brought into force the Land Ceiling Acts. However, there was no proper result till 1972
Consolidation of Holdings
- The term ‘Consolidation of holdings’ refers to amalgamation and redistribution of the fragmented land with a view to bringing together all plots of land of a cultivator in one compact block.
- Due to growing pressure of population on land and the limited opportunities for work in the non-agricultural sector, there is an increasing trend towards subdivision and fragmentation of land holdings.
- This makes the task of irrigation management, land improvement and personal supervision of different plots very difficult.
- After independence, almost all states except Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Manipur, Nagaland, Tripura and parts of Andhra Pradesh enacted laws for consolidation of holdings. But the nature of legislation and the degree of success achieved varied widely.
Updating of Land Records:
- The maintenance of up-to-date land records is important not only for effective implementation of land records, but also for harmonizing the process of overall rural transformation.
- During the Seventh Five Year Plan a centrally sponsored scheme was launched for computerization of land records.
- However, the progress made so far is poor due to lack of adequate infrastructural and training support at the local level. Besides, there is a need to take steps to bring about transparency in the administration of land records.
- Define and discuss the ULPIN Scheme
- Mention the advantages of the scheme
- Discuss the problems in implementing the scheme