In news– The state government of Assam has announced that Bhaskarabda will be added to the Saka and Gregorian in the official calendar of the Assam government.
About Bhaskarabda calendar-
- It is a luni-solar calendar, followed in the Indian state of Assam.
- Bhaskarabda began in the 7th century when Bhaskar Varman was crowned ruler of the Kamrupa kingdom.
- He was a contemporary and political ally of northern Indian ruler Harshavardhana.
- The New Year in the Assamese calendar is known as Bohag Bihu.
- The themes of the new calendar could be wildlife, plants, culture, cuisine and other aspects of Assam.
Differences between Bhaskarabda and other calendars-
- The gap between Bhaskarabda and Gregorian is 593 years.
- The names of the days of the week in the Assamese Calendar are based on the Navagraha.
- Unlike the Gregorian, where a day starts at midnight, the Assamese calendar begins and ends at sunrise over 24 hours.
- While the Gregorian goes by the solar cycle, the Saka and Bhaskarabda use a lunisolar system based on both the phases of the moon and the solar year.
About Bhaskar Varman –
- He was the last ruler of the Varman dynasty.
- After being captured by the Gauda king during the reign of his father, he was able to re-establish the rule of the Varman’s.
- He was visited by Xuanzang and Li Yi-piao, the envoy of the Tang dynasty who have left accounts of the king and the kingdom.
- He was the first Kamarupa king to claim descent from the mythical Narakasura, Bhagadatta and Vajradatta.
- He made political alliances with Harshavardhana of Thaneswar, against the alliance of the Gauda and East Malwa.
Different types of Calendars-
- Solar Calendar: It is a dating system based on the seasonal year(dates indicate the season ) of approximately 365 1/4 days, the time it takes the Earth to revolve once around the Sun.
- Lunar Calendar: This Calendar is based on the monthly cycles of the Moon’s phases (synodic months, lunations).
- Lunisolar Calendar: In this calendar months are lunar but years are solar—that is, are brought into line with the course of the Sun. Its date indicates both the Moon phase and the time of the solar year.
Types of Calendars in India-
- The Hindu New Year Vikram Samvat begins with the new moon of the month of Chaitra.
- The day is known as Chaitra Sukhladi.
- King Vikramaditya of Ujjain started Vikram Samvat in 57 BC and it is believed that this calendar follows his victory over the Saka in 56 B.C.
- It utilizes sidereal years and 12 lunar months per year.
- In India, the Vikram Samvat calendar is used alongside the official calendar, and so is the Gregorian calendar.
- It was adopted for use on November 26, 1949, as recorded in the constitution of India.
- The zero year of Saka Samvat is 78 A.D.
- This calendar was started by Saka rulers to mark their victory over Kushanas.
- The national calendar of India is based on the Saka Era, with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22 March 1957 along with the Gregorian calendar for the following official purposes:
- Gazette of India.
- News broadcast by All India Radio.
- Calendars issued by the Government of India.
- Government communications addressed to the public.
Gregorian Calendar(Scientific Solar):
- It is the calendar used in most of the world.
- It was introduced in October 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII as a minor modification of the Julian calendar.
- The calendar spaces leap years to make its average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth’s revolution around the Sun.
Hijri calendar(Islamic Lunar Calendar):
- The zero year is 622 A.D.
- It was initially started and followed in Saudi Arabia.
- Every year has 12 months and 354/355 days.
- Muharram is the first month in it.
- And the ninth month is Ramzan.
- It is used to determine the proper days of Islamic holidays and rituals, such as the annual period of fasting and the proper time for the Hajj.