- The Aravallis of Northwestern India, one of the oldest fold mountains of the world, now form residual mountains with an elevation of 300m. to 900m.
- They stretch for a distance of 800 km. from Himmatnagar in Gujarat to Delhi, spanning Haryana, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Delhi, the 692 kilometre (km).
- It is the oldest fold of mountain ranges in the world stretching about 300 miles from the northeast to the southwest.
- The Aravalli range is very rich in natural resources and gave rise to numerous peninsula rivers like Banas, Luni, Sakhi, and Sabarmati.
- Guru Shikhar is the highest point in the range which is located in Mount Abu.
- The Aravallis date back to millions of years when a pre-Indian subcontinent collided with the mainland Eurasian Plate.
Significance of Aravalli
- Barrier between the fertile plains in the east and the sandy desert in the west.
- Aravalli range checked the spread of the Thar desert towards the Indo-Gangetic plains, serving as a catchment of rivers and plains.
- Rich in biodiversity and provides habitat to 300 native plant species, 120 bird species and many exclusive animals like the jackal and mongoose.
- Aravallis function as a groundwater recharge zone for the regions around that absorb rainwater and revive the groundwater level.
- During monsoons, it provides barrier and monsoon clouds move eastwards towards Shimla and Nainital, thus helping nurture the sub-Himalayan rivers and feeding the north Indian plains.
- During winter, it protects the fertile alluvial river valleys from the cold westerly winds from Central Asia.