What is Apartheid?
- It is the name of the policy that governed relations between the white minority and the non white majority of South Africa during the 20th century.
- The apartheid name was first used in about 1948 to describe the racial segregation policies embraced by the white minority government.
- It dictated where South Africans, on the basis of their race, could live and work, the type of education they could receive, and whether they could vote.
- According to this system of social stratification, white citizens had the highest status, followed by Asians and Coloureds, then black Africans.
- Under the administration of the South African president F.W. de Klerk, legislation supporting apartheid was repealed in the early 1990s, and a new constitution—one that enfranchised blacks and other racial groups was adopted in 1993.
- The apartheid regime of South Africa ended in 1994, during which year democratic elections were held in the country for the first time.
- All-race national elections held in 1994 resulted in a black majority government led by prominent anti-apartheid activist Nelson Mandela of the African National Congress party.
About Ebrahim Ismail-
- He was born in 1937 to parents of Indian origin.
- He belonged to the village of Chasa near Alipore and adopted the surname of the family he had accompanied to South Africa, which was Ebrahim.
- He was influenced by the leaders of the African National Congress (ANC) and the Natal Indian Congress (NIC) at the age of 13.
- By 1952, during the Defiance Campaign his political involvement grew and Ebrahim joined the NIC.
- He became a member of the ANC, spent over 15 years in the Robben Island prison along with Nelson Mandela and Ahmed Kathrada for taking a position against the apartheid government.
- In 1952, Ebrahim joined the liberation movement as a youth activist and participated in the Congress of the People Campaign through the NIC.
- In 1961, he joined the armed wing of the ANC called the Umkhonto We Sizwe that was meant to carry out sabotage activities in the country.
- For his political activities, he was sent to jail for several years.