Why in news?
E Coli has been seeming to have developed antibiotic resistance.
What is E coli?
- Escherichia coli is a bacterium that is an important aspect of human intestinal tract
- Most E. coli are harmless bacteria and assist in everyday health but the ones that cause a problem are generally pathogenic, which cause illnesses such as diarrhoea, or even things outside the intestinal functions.
- Usually, the E. coli that causes diarrhoea is transferred through food, water, or contact with animals/people who already have E. coli.
- It enters the body through human or animal feces.
What is antibiotic resistance?
- Antibiotics are medicines used to treat infections caused by bacteria.
- Antibiotic Resistance refers to resistance developed by bacteria against antibiotics or the ability of bacteria to mutate or change so as to resist the effects of antibiotics.
- Antibiotic resistance occurs naturally, but misuse of antibiotics in humans and animals is accelerating the process.
- It is also accelerated by poor infection prevention and control.
- A growing number of infections – such as pneumonia,tuberculosis, gonorrhoea, and salmonellosis – are becoming harder to treat as the antibiotics used to treat them become less effective.
- Antibiotic resistance leads to longer hospital stays, higher medical costs and increased mortality.
- WHO has formulated a “Global action plan on antimicrobial resistance” in May 2015.
- It has 5 strategic objectives:
- To improve awareness and understanding of antimicrobial resistance.
- To strengthen surveillance and research.
- To reduce the incidence of infection.
- To optimize the use of antimicrobial medicines.
- To ensure sustainable investment in countering antimicrobial resistance.