In news- Centenary Celebrations of the Madras Legislative Council was held in Chennai on 2nd August, 2021.
About Madras Legislative council-
- It was the first provincial legislature for the Madras Presidency.
- It was established by the first Indian Council Act of 1861, enacted in the British parliament in the aftermath of the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
- Though it was initially created as an advisory body in 1861, by the British colonial government, its role and strength were later expanded by the Indian Council Act of 1892.
- Limited election was introduced under Morley-Minto Act of 1909.
- The first election for the Madras Legislative Council was held in November 1920.
- The first sitting of the Council was inaugurated by the Duke of Connaught on 12 January 1921.
- In total, five such councils were constituted (in 1920, 23, 26, 30 and 34).
- The term of the councils was three years (except for the fourth council which was extended for a year in expectation of abolition of dyarchy).
- The Government of India Act of 1935 abolished dyarchy and ensured provincial autonomy.
- It created a bicameral legislature in the Madras province and the Council eventually became the upper chamber of a bicameral legislature in 1937.
- It was renamed as the Tamil Nadu Legislative Council when the state was renamed as Tamil Nadu in 1969.
- The Council was abolished by the M. G. Ramachandran administration on 1 November 1986.
Indian Council Act of 1861-
- It was institutionalized to serve the necessities of cooperation of Indians in the administration of the country.
- The act restored the power of the Government and the composition of the Governor General’s council for executive & legislative Purposes.
- The three separate presidencies (Madras, Bombay and Bengal) were brought into a common system.
- The Act added to the Viceroy’s Executive Council a fifth member – a jurist.
- Viceroy’s Executive Council was expanded by the addition of not less than six and not more than 12 additional members for the purposes of legislation, who would be nominated by the Governor-General.
- Not less than half of these members were to be non-officials.
- The legislative power was to be restored to the Council of Bombay and Madras, while Councils were allowed to be established in other Provinces in Bengal in 1862 and North West Frontier Province (NWFP) in 1886, Burma and Punjab in 1897.
Viceroy Lord Canning nominated three Indians to his legislative council– the Raja of Banaras, the Maharaja of Patiala and Sir Dinkar Rao in 1862.